全部 标题 作者
关键词 摘要


Marx’s Religious Dilemma: An Islamic Reply

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104448, PP. 1-26

Subject Areas: Philosophy

Keywords: Religion, Society, Dogmas, Theology, Criticism

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract

Religious concepts of Karl Marx were reactionary and he considered religion as a tool in the hands of oppressors and further captions it as an essence of no individual and social value. His influence travelled with him and socialist philosophy took a new turn and started abolishing religious norms in order to build an all atheist culture. Marx linked religion with economy and financial prosperity and made it responsible for societal failure. This research initiative is based upon Marx’s writings and his sole contribution in the very right perspective of how he took the notion of religion? and strives to establish true position of religion as social phenomenon. The researcher focused to establish the fact that Marx’s criticism of religion was not the criticism of religion but the existing world where it is being implemented and practiced. This paper attempts to counter Marx’s religious confusions in the light of Islamic fundamentals and further tries to prove that Islam in its own capacity counters all the observations posed by Marx while referencing the word “religion”.

Cite this paper

Junaid, M. R. and Naz, K. (2018). Marx’s Religious Dilemma: An Islamic Reply. Open Access Library Journal, 5, e4448. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1104448.

References

[1]  Borris, I.N. and Helfen, O.M. (1976) Karl Marx: Man and Fighter. Penguin, New York.
[2]  Boroson, W. (2010) Was Karl Marx Jewish?
http://jewishstandard.timesofisrael.com/was-karl-marx-jewish/
[3]  Macionis, G. (2010) Sociology. 7th Canadian Edition, Pearson Canada Inc., Ontario, Canada.
[4]  DeRosso, D. (2015) The Structural-Functional Theoretical Approach.
https://www.wisc-online.com/learn/social-science/
sociology/i2s3404/the-structural-functional-theoretical
-approac
[5]  Marx, K. (1843) Introduction to a Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. Translated by Mckinnon, A.M. (1976), Collected Works, Vol. 3, New York.
[6]  Raines, J. (2002) Introduction. In: Marx on Religion, Temple University Press, Philadelphia.
[7]  Cline, A. (2017) Religion as Opium of the People.
https://www.thoughtco.com/religion-as-opium-of-the-people-250555
[8]  Boer, R. (2009) The Full Story: On Marxism and Religion. International Socialism, No. 123.
http://isj.org.uk/the-full-story-on-marxism-and-religion/
[9]  Blunden, A. (2009) A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right.
https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1843/
[10]  Craig, C.J. (2002) Classical Sociological Theory. Wiley-Blackwell, New York.
[11]  Durkheim, é. (2007) The Rules of Sociological Method (1895). In: Appelrouth, S. and Edles, L.D., Eds., Classical and Contemporary Sociological Theory: Text and Readings, Pine Forge Press, Thousand Oaks, CA.
[12]  (2016) The Holy Bible. English Standard Version (Galatians 5:19-21).
https://www.biblegateway.com
[13]  (2016) The Holy Bible. English Standard Version (Corinthians 6:9).
https://www.biblegateway.com
[14]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (49:13). Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an Incorporated, New Delhi.
[15]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (16:90-91). Tahrike Tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[16]  Heelas, P. (2009) Spiritualities of Life: New Age Romanticism and Consumptive Capitalism. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
[17]  James, W. and Marty, M. (1982) The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature. Penguin Books, New York.
[18]  Richardson, R. and James, W. (2010) The Heart of William James. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
[19]  Holt, J. (2015) The Social Thought of Karl Marx. Sage, New York.
[20]  Seligman, E. (1901) The Economic Interpretation of History. Political Science Quarterly, 16, 612-640.
https://doi.org/10.2307/2140420
[21]  Marx, K. (1977) A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. Progress Publishers, Moscow.
[22]  (2016) The Holy Bible. English Standard Version (Luke 12: 24-27).
https://www.biblegateway.com
[23]  Jacobs, L. (1997) Jewish Mystical Testimonies. Schocken, New York.
[24]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (3:17). Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an Incorporated, New Delhi.
[25]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (9:112). Tahrike Tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[26]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (17: 79-80). Tehrike Tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[27]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (2: 63-66). Tehrike Tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[28]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (26:217-220). Tehrike Tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[29]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (39:9). Tehnrike Tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[30]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (50:39-40). Tehrike Tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[31]  Limnatis, G.N. (2008) German Idealism and the Problem of Knowledge: Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel. Springer, Netherlands.
[32]  Copleston, F.C. (2003) A History of Philosophy: Volume 7: 18th and 19th Century German Philosophy. Continuum International Publishing Group, New York.
[33]  Alex, C. (1983) The Revolutionary Ideas of Karl Marx. Bookmarks, Bloomsbury, London.
[34]  Wolff, R. and Resnick, S. (1987) Economics: Marxian versus Neoclassical. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
[35]  Thomas, A. (2005) Constructing “Godless Communism”: Religion, Politics, and Popular Culture, 1954-1960. Americana: The Journal of American Popular Culture (1900-Present), 4, 1.
http://www.americanpopularculture.com/journal/articles/
spring_2005/aiello.htm
[36]  (2016) The Holy Bible. English Standard Version (Matthew 7: 21-13).
https://www.biblegateway.com
[37]  (2016) The Holy Bible. English Standard Version (Galatians 5:19-26).
https://www.biblegateway.com
[38]  Rosenberg, R.A.J. (1993) The Complete Tanach with Rashi’s Commentary (5636).
https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/63255/
jewish/The-Bible-with-Rashi.htm
[39]  Rosenberg, R.A.J. (1993) The Complete Tanach with Rashi’s Commentary (Deuteronomy 5: 16-21).
https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/63255/jewish
/The-Bible-with-Rashi.htm
[40]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (2:17). Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an Incorporated, New Delhi.
[41]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (6:160). Tahrike Tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[42]  Stephen, P. (1991) Theories of the Mind. Penguin Books, London.
[43]  Novack, G. (1979) The Origins of Materialism. Pathfinder Press, New York.
[44]  Moser, P.K. and Trout, J.D. (1995) Contemporary Materialism: A Reader. Psychology Press, Hove.
https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203427262
[45]  Uchegbue, C.O. (2011) A Critical Evaluation of Marx’s Theory of Religion. American Journal of Social Issues & Humanities, 1, 50-81.
[46]  Walter, B. (1985) Greek Religion. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
[47]  Europe (2018) Encyclopedia Britannica.
https://www.britannica.com/place/Europe
[48]  Bhaduri, A. (1969) On the Significance of Recent Controversies on Capital Theory: A Marxian View. Economic Journal, 79, 532-539.
[49]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (22:41). Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an Incorporated, New Delhi.
[50]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (5:8). Tahrike Tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[51]  Darwish, A.A. (2015) Principles of Good Governance in Islam.
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/principles-good-governance
-islam-ali-ahmad-darwish
[52]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (42:39). Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an Incorporated, New Delhi.
[53]  Shafaat, A. (1989) On the Political System of the Islamic State. American Trust Publications, Oak Brook, IL.
[54]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (3:159). Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an Incorporated, New Delhi.
[55]  Bukhari, A.M. (1 April 2017) Hadith # 893.
https://www.sahih-bukhari.com
[56]  Hoosen, A.K. (1990) Imam Tirmidhi’s Contribution towards Hadith (Hadith # 2029). 1st Edition, Newcastle, South Africa.
[57]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (33:36). Tahrike Tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[58]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (24:63). Tahrike Tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[59]  Ernest, M. (1970) Marxist Economic Theory. Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Monthly Review Press, New York.
[60]  Mahmasani, S. (2000) The Philosophy of Jurisprudence in Islam. Translated by Farhat J. Zaideh, The Open Press, Kuala Lumpur.
[61]  Karim, S.A. (2010) The Islamic Moral Economy: A Study of Islamic Money and Financial Instruments. Brown Walker Press, Boca Raton, FL.
[62]  Ishaque, K.M. (1983) Islamic Approach to Economic Development. In: Esposito, J.L., Ed., Voices of Resurgent Islam, 268-276.
[63]  Khan, M.A. (1994) An Introduction to Islamic Economics. International Institute of Islamic Thought, and Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad.
[64]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (9:35). Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an Incorporated, New Delhi.
[65]  Krichene, N. (2012) Islamic Capital Markets: Theory and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, San Francisco, CA.
https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119199106
[66]  Askari, H., Iqbal, Z., Krichenne, N. and Mirakhor, A. (2011) The Stability of Islamic Finance: Creating a Resilient Financial Environment for a Secure Future. John Wiley & Sons, San Francisco, CA.
[67]  Davari, M.T. (2009) The Political Thought of Ayatollah Murtaza Mutahhari: An Iranian Theoretician of the Islamic State. Routledge, Abingdon, UK.
[68]  Zaman, A. (2015) Re-Defining Islamic Economics. In: Egri, T. and Kizilkaya, N., Eds., Islamic Economics: Basic Concepts, New Thinking and Future Directions, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, UK.
[69]  Weiss, D. (1995) Ibn Khaldun on Economic Transformation. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 27, 29-37.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020743800061560
[70]  Mallat, C. (1993) The Renewal of Islamic Law: Muhammad Baqer as-Sadr, Najaf, and the Shi’i International. Cambridge University Press, Cam-bridge.
https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511583889
[71]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (24: 33). Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an Incorporated, New Delhi.
[72]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (7: 7). Tahrike Tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[73]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (10: 34). Tahrike Tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[74]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (59:7) Tahrike tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[75]  Zimbalist, S., Brown, A., Howard, J. and Stuart (1988) Comparing Economic Systems: A Political-Economic Approach. Harcourt College Pub.
[76]  Denton, J.A. (1990) Society and the Official World: A Reintroduction to Sociology. General Hall, Dix Hills, New York.
[77]  Jolly, R. (1976) The World Employment Conference: The Enthronement of Basic Needs. Development Policy Review, A9, 31-44.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7679.1976.tb00338.x
[78]  Mustafa, I., et al. (1973) Al-Mu’jam al-Waseet Fi Tasreef al-Af’aal, Vol.1. Al-Maktaba al-Islamiyah, Istanbul.
[79]  Al-Shaykh Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Musa al-Shatibi al-Andalusi (1975) Al-Muwafaqat Fi Usul Al-Shari’ah, Vol. 2. Al Maktabah al-Tijiriyah al-Kubra, Cairo.
[80]  Hisbullah, A. (1977) Usool-al-Tashreeh-al-Islami. Al-Quran-walUlum, Karachi.
[81]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (51:19). Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an Incorporated, New Delhi.
[82]  Maududi, S.A. (1984) Tafheem-ul-Qur’an, Vol. 5. Idarah Tarjman-ul Quran, Lahore.
[83]  Imam Abu Eisa (2014) Al-Jami’ al-Tirmidhi, Hadith # 2320.
http://daruliftaa.com/node/7130
[84]  Ghazali, I. (2000) Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Deen, Vol. 3. Dar al-Wafa’ lilTi-ba`ahwa-al-Nashrwa-al-Tawzi, Beirut.
[85]  Ghazali, I. (2000) Ihya’ Ulium al-Deen, Vol. 4. Dar al-Wafa’ lilTi-ba’ahwa-al-Nashrwa-al-Tawzi.
[86]  Abu’l-Fadl al-Damashqi (1977) al-Isharathwal Mahasinaltijarat. alKulliyat al-Azhria, Cairo.
[87]  BurhanUddin Abu Al-Hasan Ali Ibn Abu BakrIbn Abdul Jaleel al-Rushdani al-Marghinani (1997) Hedaya. Idarat-ul-Quran-walUloom-al-Islamia, Karachi.
[88]  Shamsi, N. (2003) Human Rights and Islam. Reference Press, New Delhi.
[89]  Shahab al-Din, Abu al-’Abbas, Ahmad bin Hussain bin Hasan bin ‘Ali bin Yusuf bin ‘Ali bin Arsalan, al-Ramli, al-Shafi’i (1967) Nihayat almuhtajilásharh al-Minhaj fi al-fiqh alámadhhab al-imam al-Shafi. Vol. 6. Matbaaat al-Babi-al-Halli.
[90]  Al Sajistani, A.D. (1986) Sunan Abi Daud, Kitab-ul Kharaj wal Amarah wal Fai, "Bab Arzaak ul Maal", Hadith # 2571. Majlis-e-Ilmi Dar-ul-Daa’wa, New Delhi, India.
[91]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (11:85). Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an Incorporated, New Delhi.
[92]  Eisa, I.A. (2014) Al-Jami’ al-Tirmidhi, Hadith # 3741.
http://daruliftaa.com/node/7130
[93]  Bukhari, A.M. (2017) Hadith # 661.
https://www.sahih-bukhari.com
[94]  Bukhari, A.M. (2017) Hadith # 7150.
https://www.sahih-bukhari.com
[95]  Eisa, I.A. (2014) Al-Jami’ al-Tirmidhi, Hadith # 2174.
http://daruliftaa.com/node/7130
[96]  Addas, W. (2008) Methodology of Economics: Secular vs Islamic. International Islamic University Malaysia Press, Malaysia.
[97]  Khan, F.M. (2016) Islamic Financial System: A Brief Introduction.
https://islamicbanker.com/education/islamic-financial-
system-brief-introduction
[98]  Mubarak, A. (2007) The Fundamentals of Islamic Finance. Al-Azhar Printing Press, Cairo.
[99]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (2:276). Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an Incorporated, New Delhi.
[100]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (2: 278). Tahrike Tarsile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.
[101]  Ali, A.Y., Trans. (2011) English Translation of Holy Quran (4:161). Tahrike Taesile Qura’n Incorporated, New Delhi.

Full-Text


comments powered by Disqus