全部 标题 作者
关键词 摘要


Physical and Chemical Parameters and Some Heavy Metal for Three Rainy Season Months in Water and Sediments of Upper New Calabar River, Niger Delta, Nigeria

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104456, PP. 1-4

Subject Areas: Aquaculture, Fisheries & Fish Science

Keywords: Physico-Chemical Parameters, Heavy Metal, Rainy-Season, Water and Sediments, Upper New Calabar River

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract

The study of heavy metals in water and sediment was carried out in the upper reach of the New Calabar River, Niger Delta region in Nigeria. Three sampling stations were selected which were Choba, Ogbogoro and Aluu. Water and sediment samples were collected and analysed, using the buck scientific Atomic Absorption/Emission spectrometer 200 A model. Water Physico-chemical parameters were measured in situ. Dissolved Oxygen had an overall mean of 4.17 ± 0.83 mg/l, temperature had mean value of 28.34℃ ± 1.07℃, pH had a mean value of 5.52 ± 0.54, electrical conductivity had a mean value of 1123.39 ± 859.58 μs/cm, BOD had mean value of 4.45 ± 1.14 mg/l, salinity had a mean value of 1.47 ± 1.15 ppt while TDS had mean value of 598.13 ± 529.58 mg/l. Result of heavy metals in water indicated that Zn had an overall mean value of 1.77 ± 0.53 ppm, Cr had mean value of 0.65 ± 0.21 ppm, Pb had a mean value of 0.19 ± 0.11 while Fe had an overall mean value of 1.52 ± 0.34 ppm. Heavy metals in sediment indicate higher concentration than in Water: Zn had an overall mean value of 7.90 ± 2.59 ppm, Cr observed an overall mean value of 1.94 ± 0.81 ppm, Pb had an overall mean value of 2.23 ± 0.61 ppm, while Fe observed an overall mean value of 87.43 ± 6.57 ppm. The result indicated that the source of heavy metals in the aquatic environment could be industrial effluent, domestic waste, dumping of scrap, vessel in the water way and runoff from agricultural land.

Cite this paper

George, A. D. I. and Abowei, J. F. N. (2018). Physical and Chemical Parameters and Some Heavy Metal for Three Rainy Season Months in Water and Sediments of Upper New Calabar River, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Open Access Library Journal, 5, e4456. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1104456.

References

[1]  Fergusson, J.E. (1990) The Heavy Elements: Chemistry, Environmental Impact and Health. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
[2]  Amman, A.A., Michalke, B. and Schramet, P. (2002) Speciation of Heavy Metals in Environmental Water by Ion Chromatography Coupled to ECP-MS. Biochemistry, 372, 448-452.
[3]  Di Maio, V.J.M. (2001) Forensic Pathology. 2nd Edition, CRC Press.
[4]  Perry, J. and Vanderklein, E.L. (1996) Water Quality Management of Matira; Respsrices B. aclwescoemce.
[5]  Tuzen, M. (2003) Determination of Heavy Metal in Fish Samples of Middle Black Sea (Turkey) by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectronmetry. Food Chemistry, 80, 119-173.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00264-9
[6]  Dural, M., Gosku, M.Z.L. and Ozak, A.A. (2007) Investigation of Heavy Metal Levels in Economically Important Fish Species Captured Form the Tuzla Lagoon. Food Chemistry, 102, 415-421.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.03.001
[7]  Howard, I.C., Gabriel, U.U. and Nduka, J.O. (2009) Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Periphthalnuspapillo and Tympanotonusfuscatus from the Mangrove Swamps in Oil Field in Niger Delta.
[8]  Chinda, A.C. and Nduaguibe, U. (2003) Effects of Tarn Farm Wastes on Water Quality and Periphyton of Lower Bonny River, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Nigerian Environmental Society, 1, 206-222.
[9]  Bettinentti, R., Giarei, C. and Provini, A. (2003) A Chemical Anaysis and Sediment Toxicity Bioassays to Assess the Contamination of Rivers Lambro (Northern Italy). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 45, 72-75.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-002-0126-6
[10]  Yi, Y., Yang, Z. and Zhang, S. (2012) Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediment and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal in Fishes in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtse River Basin. Environmental Pollution, 159, 2576-2585.
[11]  Suresh, G., Sutharsan, P., Romasamy, V. and Venkatacholapathy, R. (2012) Assessment of Spatial Distribution and Potential Ecological Risk of the Heavy Metals in Relation to Granulometric Contents of Vicranam Lake Sediments. India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 84, 117-125.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.06.027
[12]  Odiete, W.O. (1999) Impacts Associated with Water Pollution in Environmental Physiology of Animal and Pollution. Diversified Resources Ltd., Lagos, 187-219.
[13]  Opuluwa, O.D., Aremu, M.O., Ogbo, L.O., Magaji, J.I., Odiba, I.E. and Ekpo, E.R. (2012) Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water, Fish and Sediments Form UK. Stream, Nassarawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Current World Environment, 7, 213-220.
https://doi.org/10.12944/CWE.7.2.04
[14]  Davies, O.A., Allison, M.E. and Uyi, H.S. (2006) Bio Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Water Sediments and Periwinkle (Tympanotonusfus catusvarvadula) from Electri Creek, Niger Detta. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5, 10.
[15]  Issa, B.R., Arimoro, O., Ibrahim, M., Birma, G.J. and Fadairo, E.A. (2011) Assessment of Sediment Contamination by Heavy Metals in River Orogodo. Journal of Environmental Science, 6, 29-38.
[16]  US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2005) National Management Measures to Control Non-Point Source Pollution for Urban Areas. Chapter 7 and 8, Document No. EPA 84 1-B-05-004, Washington DC.
[17]  Forstner, U. and Wiltman, G.T. (1983) Metal Pollution in Aquatic Environment. 2nd Edition, Springer-Verlay, Berlin, 486 p.
[18]  Degregori, I., Pinochet, H., Arancibia, M. and Vida, A. (1996) Grown Size Effects on Trace Metal’s Distribution in Sediment from Two Coastal Area of Chile. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 57, 163-170.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s001289900170
[19]  Fu, J. and Hazard, J. (2014) Heavy Metals in Surface Sediment of Jialu River, China: Their Relations to Environmental Factors. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 270, 102-109.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.01.044
[20]  Omotoyin, B.O. and Ajani, E.K. (2007) Feeding Habits and Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Fishes of Eleyelelake, Nigeria. Journal of Afro-Topical Zoology, 165-169.
[21]  Ayeloja, A.A., George F.O.A., Shorinmade, A.Y., Jimoh, W.A., Afolabi, Q.O. and Olwepo, K.D. (2014) Heavy Metal Concentration in Selected Fish Species from Eleyele Reservoir Ibadan Oyo State, South Western Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 8, 422-427.
https://doi.org/10.5897/AJEST2014.1700
[22]  Abowei, J.F.N. and Sikoki, F.D. (2005) Water Pollution Management and Control, Double Trust. Publication Company, Port Harcourt, 236 p.
[23]  Mohammad, M., Sary, A.A. and Khodadadi, M. (2011) Determination of Heavy Metals in Two Barbs, Barbusgrypus and Barbusxanthopterus in Karoon and Dez Rivers, Khoozestan, Iran. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 87, 158-162.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0302-3
[24]  Amiard, J.C., Amiard-Triquet, C., Barko, S., Pellerin, J. and Rainbow, P.S. (2016) Metallothioneons in Aquatic Invertebrates: Their Role in Metal Detorification and Their Use as Biomarkers. Tpxocp, 76, 160-202.
[25]  Dirican, S., Clilak, S., Clifter, H., Biyikeglu, M., Karaemar, S. and Yokus, A. (2015) Preliminary Study on Heavy Metal Concentration of Anetiliankhramulya, Lapoetatinca (Heckel, 1843) from Camlogozic Dam Like, Sivas Turkey. Journal of Environmental Health science and Engineering, 11, 1-6.
[26]  Akpor, O.B. and Muchie, M. (2010) Remediation of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment Systems Processes and Applications. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 5, 1807-1817.
[27]  Ayodele, J.T., Momoh, R.U. and Aminu, M. (2014) Determination of Heavy Metals in Sharaba: Industrial Effluents. In: Book of Abstracts: 2nd National Environmental Seminar, FEPA, F.M.H. Natural Water Resource Institute, W.H.O Kaduna State, Waterboard, 14.
[28]  Abdulaziz, B.A. and Mohammad, H. (1997) Role of Epidemiological Studies in Determining Environmental Impact on Health in Saudi Aravia. In: Book of Abstracts: Development and Environmental Impact Conference, Biyadh, Saudi Arabia, 196 p.
[29]  Jjemba, P.K. (2004) Environment Microbiology. Principles and Applications. Science Publishers Inc., Enfield.
[30]  Harabawy, A.S.A. and Mosleh, Y.Y.I. (2014) The Role of Vitamins A, C, E and Selenium as Antioxidants against Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Cadmium, Copper, Lead and Zinc on Erythrocytes of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 104, 28-35.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.02.015
[31]  Silva, J., Heuser, V. and Amdrade, V. (2003) Bio Monitoramento Ambiental. In: Ebahj, S.J., Ed., Genetica Toxicological, Alcance, Porto Alegre, 167-178.
[32]  FAO/WHO Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation (1997) Expert Committee Tool Additives World Health Organization. Geneva-WHO Technical Report Series (FAO), Rome, 20-26.
[33]  O’Connor, M.I. (2006) Temperature Control of Larval Dispersal and the Implications for Marine Ecology, Evolution and Conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 1266-1271.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0603422104
[34]  Goldman, C.R. and Horne, A.J. (1983) Limnology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 464 p.
[35]  Ibim, A.T., Gogo, O.O. and Igbani, F. (2016) The Ichthyofaunal Assemblage of the Lower and Upper Reaches of New Calabar River, Rivers State, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal Environment and Earth Science, 6, 21-23.
[36]  Lau, S., Mohammed, M.A., Tan, C.Y. and Sut-S, S. (1998) Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Freshwater Mollusks. The Science of the Total Environment, 214, 115-121.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00058-8
[37]  WHO (1985) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Vol. 2: Health Criteria and Supporting Information. Vol. 1: Recommendations. WHO, Geneva, 130.
[38]  Fondriest Environment Inc. FEI (2014) Conductivity, Salinity and Total Dissolved Solid. Fundamentals of Environmental Measurements.
http://www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements
/parameters/water-quality/conductivity-salinity-TDS/
[39]  Abowei, J.F.N. and Ezekiel, E.N. (2003) Aspects of Some Physicochemical Parameters of the Fresh Water Reaches of the Lower Nun River, Niger Delta. International Journal of Science and Technology (IJST), 1, 40.
[40]  Chindah, A.C. and Braide, S.A. (2003) Cadium and Lead Concentrations in Fish Species of a Brackish Wetland Upper Bonny Estuary, Niger Delta. Journal of Nigerian Water Environment, 1, 399-405.
[41]  Daka, E.R., Ifidi, I. and Braide, S.A. (2006) Effect of Size and Salinity on the Accumulation of Heavy Metals in the Intertidal Gastropod Tympanotonus fuscatus Linnaeus. African Journal of Environmental Pollution and Health, 5, 1-7.
[42]  Boyd, C.E. and Liichtkoppler, F. (1779) Water Quality Management in Fish Pond. Research and Development, Series No. 22, International Centre for Aquaculture and Agriculture, Experimental Station, Auburn University, Alabama, 45-47.
[43]  Erondu, S.E. and Chinda, A.C. (1991) Variation in the Physico-Chemical Features and Phytoplankton of the New Calabar River at Aluu Rivers State, Nigeria. NIOMR Tech. Paper No. 75.
[44]  Madu, P.C., Tagwoi, J.T. and Babalola, F.A. (2008) A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution of River Antau, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Indian Journal of Multi. Research, 4, 8-18.
[45]  Kaley, M., Aly, O. and Canil, M. (1999) Heavy Metal Concentration in Fish Disuse Form the North East Mediteranean Sea, Bulletin of Enron. Contamination and Toxicity, 63, 673-671.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s001289901033
[46]  King, R.P. and Nkanta, N.A. (1992) The Status and Seasonality in the Physico-Chemical Hydrology of a Nigerian Rainforest Pond. Journal of Limnology, 52, 1-2.
[47]  Macfarlane, G.B. and Burchett, M.D. (2000) Cellular Distribution of Cu, Pb and Zn in the Grey Mangrove Avicemnia marina (Forsk) Vierh. Aquatic Botany, 68, 45-59.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3770(00)00105-4
[48]  Aremu, M.O., Atolaiye, B.O., Shagye, D. and Moumouni, A. (2007) Determination of Trace Metals in TIilapia zillo and clariaslazera Fishes Associated with Water and Soil Sediment from Nasarawa, in Nasaraw State, Nigeria. India. J. Multi. Res., 3, 159-168.
[49]  Galloway, J.N., Thornton, J.D., Norton, S.A., Volchok, H.L. and Mcilean, H.L. (1982) Trace Metals in Atmospheric Depositions, a Review and Assessment. Atmospheric Environment, 16, 1677-1700.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(82)90262-1
[50]  Ekweozor, I.K.E. (2014) Appraisal of Industrialization and Environmental Pollution: A Marine Biology Perspective. 29th Inaugural Lecture of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, 185.
[51]  Carins, J.A., Heath, G. and Parker, B.C. (1975) Temperature Influence on Chemical Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms. Water Pollution Control Federation, 47, 267-280.
[52]  Ababio, O.Y. (2006) New School Chemistry for African Schools. Africana First Limited, 423 p.
[53]  Khan, S., Cao, Q., Zheng, Y.M., Huang, Y.Z. and Zhu, Y.G. (2008) Health Risks of Metals in Contaminated Soils and Food Crops Irrigated with Waste Water in Beying. China Journal of Environmental Pollution, 152, 686-692.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.056
[54]  Guy, D. (1992) The Ecology of the Fish Pond Ecosystem with Special Reference to Africa. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 220-230.
[55]  Ukwa, U.D., Akinsaya, B. and Saliu, J.K. (2015) Parasite Load, Condition Factor and Heavy Metal Accumulation a Multiple Stressors on Fish in Lekk, Lagoon Lagos, Nigeria. 1st Annual SETAC Central and West Africa Conference, Enugu, 28-30 January 2015, No. 1410.
[56]  Langston, W.J. and Spence, S.K. (1994) Metal Analysis. In: Calow, P., Ed., Handbook of Ecotoxicology, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, 45-78.
[57]  Kaizer, A.N. and Osakwe, S.A. (2010) Physiochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metal Levels in Water Sample from Five River Systems in Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 14, 83-87.
https://doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v14i1.56501
[58]  Dara, S.S. (1993) A Textbook of Environmental Chemistry and Pollution Control. S. Chand and Company Ltd., New Delhi.
[59]  Eddy, N.O. and Ukpong, I.J. (2005) Heavy Metal Concentration in Upper Calabar River Sediments South Eastern Nigeria. African Journal Environmental Pollution, 4, 38-43.
[60]  Uyi, H.S. (2005) Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals (Cr, Cd and Pb) in Periwinkle; Tympanotanus furcatus var, radula from Elechi Creek Niger Delta. Bachelor of Science Project, in Fisheries and Aquatic Environment, Rivers State University of Science and, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, 41.
[61]  Eddy, O.O., Udo, C.L. and Ukpong, I.J. (2004) Heavy Metals in Sediment from the Cross River of Oron-Afr. Journal of Environmental Pollution and Health, 1, 6-10.
[62]  Roster, H.H. and Lange, H. (1972) Geochemical Tables. Elsevier Pub. Comp., Amsterdam, London, New York.
[63]  Gumgum, B., Unlu, E., Tez, Z. and Gulsun, Z. (1994) Heavy Metal Pollution in Water, Sediment and Fish from the Tigris River in Turkey. Chemosphere, 29, 111-116.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(94)90094-9
[64]  Ahmed, M.K., Baki, M.A., Islam, M.S., Kundu, G.K., Sakar, S.K. and Hossain, M.M. (2015) Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Tropical Fish and Shell Fish Collected from the River Buriganga, Bangladesh. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 22, 15880-15890.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4813-z

Full-Text


comments powered by Disqus