全部 标题 作者
关键词 摘要


One Neglected Yawning Function like Slow Wave Sleep: The Hypothetic Neurovascular Regulation from Mouth to Eye Driven by Expiration

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104649, PP. 1-10

Subject Areas: Neurology, Psychiatry & Psychology, Neuroscience

Keywords: Yawn, Slow Wave Sleep, Expiration, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Neurovascular Regulation of Head, Eyelid

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract

In this article, it is considered that the mechanism of yawning function is cor-relative to sleep. It was revealed from the electrophysiological studies that the slow wave sleep (SWS) was characterized as decrease in excitation from inspir-atory motoneurons more than from expiration, manifesting the expiratory activity dominating in SWS. To analogize yawning to SWS, herein it is only considered the expiration during yawning, pressing the sensory posterior palate and maxillary sinuses with air flow, so that yawns similarly regulate the vascular circulations from mouth to eye as SWS, as evidenced by the closure of eyelid in sleep and the association of ophthalmic diseases with obstructive sleep apnea. Besides, it is pointed out that the yawning expiration of high muscular tone elicits the muscular constriction at the back of neck, potentiating the expiratory press in mouth stronger than that of SWS. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that the yawning resembles the SWS to play the neurovascular regulation in head driven by expiration. It is speculated that the initiative mouth opening in yawns may have functions other than that considered here. It is expected that this new and neglected function of yawning with expiratory neurovascular regulation in head may add more to understand the complex functions of yawns.

Cite this paper

Cai, Z. (2018). One Neglected Yawning Function like Slow Wave Sleep: The Hypothetic Neurovascular Regulation from Mouth to Eye Driven by Expiration. Open Access Library Journal, 5, e4649. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1104649.

References

[1]  Guggisberg, A.G., Mathis, J., Schnider, A. and Hess, C.W. (2010) Why Do We Yawn? Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 34, 1267-1276.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.03.008
[2]  Provine, R.R., Tate, B.C. and Geldmacher, L.L. (1987) Yawning: No Effect of 3—5% CO2, 100% O2, and Exercise. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 48, 382-393.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-1047(87)90944-7
[3]  Guggisberg, A.G., Mathis, J. and Hess, C.W. (2010) Interplay between Yawning and Vigilance: A Review of the Experimental Evidence. Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience, 28, 47-54.
https://doi.org/10.1159/000307079
[4]  Guggisberg, A.G., Mathis, J., Herrmann, U.S. and Hess, C.W. (2007) The Functional Relationship between Yawning and Vigilance. Behavioural Brain Research, 179, 159-166.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2007.01.027
[5]  Gallup, A.C. (2010) A Thermoregulatory Behavior. Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience, 28, 84-89.
https://doi.org/10.1159/000307084
[6]  Massen, J.J., Dusch, K., Eldakar, O.T. and Gallup, A.C. (2014) A Thermal Window for Yawning in Humans: Yawning as a Brain Cooling Mechanism. Physiology & Behavior, 130, 145-148.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.03.032
[7]  Gallup, A.C. and Hack, G.D. (2011) Human Paranasal Sinuses and Selective Brain Cooling: A Ventilation System Activated by Yawning? Medical Hypotheses, 77, 970-973.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2011.08.022
[8]  Thompson, S.B. (2011) Born to Yawn? Cortisol Linked to Yawning: A New Hypothesis. Medical Hypotheses, 77, 861-862.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2011.07.056
[9]  Zannella, A., Norscia, I., Stanyon, R. and Palagi, E. (2015) Testing Yawning Hypotheses in Wild Populations of Two Strepsirrhine Species: Propithecus verreauxi and Lemur catta. American Journal of Primatology, 77, 1207-1215.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22459
[10]  Romero, T., Ito, M., Saito, A. and Hasegawa, T. (2014) Social Modulation of Contagious Yawning in Wolves. PLoS ONE, 9, e105963.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105963
[11]  Cai, Z.J. (1991) The Functions of Sleep: Further Analysis. Physiology & Behavior, 50, 53-60.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(91)90497-C
[12]  Cai, Z.J. (1995) An Integrative Analysis to Sleep Functions. Behavioural Brain Research, 69, 187-194.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-4328(95)00005-E
[13]  Cai, Z.J. (2016) Progressions of Sleep, Memory and Depression Applicable to Psychoanalysis: A Review. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 12, 240-245.
https://doi.org/10.2174/1573400512666160610083505
[14]  Kupfer, D.J. and Reynolds, C.F. (1989) Slow-Wave Sleep as a “Protective” Factor. In: Stunkard, A.J. and Baum, A., Eds., Perspectives in Behavioral Medicine: Eating, Sleeping, and Sex, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc., New Jersey, 131-145.
[15]  Baldwin, D.S. and Papakostas, G.I. (2006) Symptoms of Fatigue and Sleepiness in Major Depressive Disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67, 9-15.
[16]  Fava, M., Ball, S., Nelson, J.C., Sparks, J., Konechnik, T., Classi, P., Dube, S. and Thase, M.E. (2014) Clinical Relevance of Fatigue as a Residual Symptom in Major Depressive Disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 31, 250-257.
https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22199
[17]  Baglioni, C., Spiegelhalder, K., Feige, B., Nissen, C., Berger, M. and Riemann, D. (2014) Sleep, Depression and Insomnia—A Vicious Circle? Current Psychiatry Reviews, 10, 202-213.
https://doi.org/10.2174/1573400510666140620001507
[18]  Medina, A.B., Lechuga, D.A., Escandón, O.S. and Moctezuma, J.V. (2014) Update of Sleep Alterations in Depression. Sleep Science, 7, 165-169.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.slsci.2014.09.015
[19]  Mendlewicz, J. and Kerkhofs, M. (1991) Sleep Electroencephalography in Depressive Illness. A Collaborative Study by the World Health Organization. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 505-509.
https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.159.4.505
[20]  Kahn-Greene, E.T., Killgore, D.B., Kamimori, G.H., Balkin, T.J. and Killgore, W.D. (2007) The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Symptoms of Psychopathology in Healthy Adults. Sleep Medicine, 8, 215-221.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2006.08.007
[21]  Agnew Jr., H.W., Webb, W.B. and Williams, R.L. (1967) Comparison of Stage Four and 1-REM Sleep Deprivation. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 24, 851-858.
https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1967.24.3.851
[22]  Wehr, T.A., Wirz-Justice, A., Goodwin, F.K., Duncan, W. and Gillin, J.C. (1979) Phase Advance of the Circadian Sleep-Wake Cycle as an Antidepressant. Science, 206, 710-713.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.227056
[23]  Bunney, B.G. and Bunney, W.E. (2012) Rapid-Acting Antidepressant Strategies: Mechanisms of Action. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 15, 695-713.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1461145711000927
[24]  Kupfer, D.J., Frank, E., McEachran, A.B. and Grochocinski, V.J. (1990) Delta Sleep Ratio. A Biological Correlate of Early Recurrence in Unipolar Affective Disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1100-1105.
https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1990.01810240020004
[25]  Kim, C., Choi, H., Kim, J.K., Kim, M.S., Huh, M.K. and Moon, Y.B. (1971) Sleep Pattern of Hippocampectomized Cat. Brain Research, 29, 223-236.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(71)90030-8
[26]  McGinty, D. and Szymusiak, R. (1988) Neuronal Unit Activity Patterns in Behaving Animals: Brainstem and Limbic System. Annual Review of Psychology, 39, 135-168.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.39.020188.001031
[27]  Winson, J. and Abzug, C. (1977) Gating of Neuronal Transmission in the Hippocampus: Efficacy of Transmission Varies with Behavioral State. Science, 196, 1223-1225. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.193192
[28]  Steriade, M. and Hobson, J. (1976) Neuronal Activity during the Sleep-Waking Cycle. Progress in Neurobiology, 6, 157-376.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-0082(76)90013-7
[29]  Rasch, B. and Born, J. (2013) About Sleep’s Role in Memory. Physiological Reviews, 93, 681-766.
https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00032.2012
[30]  Inostroza, M. and Born, J. (2013) Sleep for Preserving and Transforming Episodic Memory. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 36, 79-102.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-062012-170429
[31]  Hars, B. and Hennevin, E. (1987) Impairment of Learning by Cueing during Postlearning Slow-Wave Sleep in Rats. Neuroscience Letters, 79, 290-294.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(87)90446-0
[32]  Rideout, B.E. (1979) Non-REM Sleep as a Source of Learning Deficits Induced by REM Sleep Deprivation. Physiology & Behavior, 22, 1043-1047.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(79)90254-3
[33]  Yang, Z., Zhang, W., Wang, M., Ruan, D. and Chen, J. (2012) Effects of Daytime, Night and Sleep Pressure on Long-Term Depression in the Hippocampus in Vivo. Neuroscience Letters, 511, 106-109.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2012.01.050
[34]  Yang, Z., Zhang, W., Wang, M., Ruan, D. and Chen, J. (2012) Effect of Low Intensity Low-Frequency Stimuli on Long-Term Depression in the Rat Hippocampus Area CA1 in Vivo. Neuroscience Letters, 523, 24-29.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2012.06.034
[35]  Leonard, B.J., McNaughton, B.L. and Barnes, C.A. (1987) Suppres-sion of Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity during Slow-Wave Sleep. Brain Research, 425, 174-177.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(87)90496-3
[36]  Bramham, C.R. and Srebro, B. (1989) Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippo-campus Is Modulated by Behavioral State. Brain Research, 493, 74-86.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(89)91001-9
[37]  Corey, T.P., Shoup-Knox, M.L., Gordis, E.B. and Gallup Jr., G.G. (2012) Changes in Physiology before, during, and after Yawning. Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience, 3, 7.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fnevo.2011.00007
[38]  Silvani, A. and Dampney, R.A. (2013) Central Control of Cardiovascular Function during Sleep. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 305, H1683-H1692.
https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00554.2013
[39]  Burgess, H.J., Holmes, A.L. and Dawson, D. (2001) The Relationship be-tween Slow-Wave Activity, Body Temperature, and Cardiac Activity during Nighttime Sleep. Sleep, 24, 343-349.
https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/24.3.343
[40]  Trinder, J., Jordan, A.S. and Nicholas, C.L. (2014) Discharge Properties of Upper Airway Motor Units during Wakefulness and Sleep. Progress in Brain Research, 212, 59-75.
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63488-7.00004-5
[41]  Oliveira, L.V., Romano, S., Hirata, R.P., Faria Júnior, N.S., Gian-nasi, L.C., Nacif, S.R., Leitao Filho, F.S. and Insalaco, G. (2011) Negative Expiratory Pressure Test: A New, Simple Method to Identify Patients at Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, 37, 659-663.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-37132011000500014
[42]  Bikov, A., Hull, J.H. and Kunos, L. (2016) Exhaled Breath Analysis, a Simple Tool to Study the Pathophysiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 27, 1-8.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2015.07.005
[43]  MacLean, J.E., Fitzsimons, D., Fitzgerald, D. and Mbbs, K.W. (2017) Com-parison of Clinical Symptoms and Severity of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children with and without Cleft Lip and/or Palate. The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 54, 523-529.
https://doi.org/10.1597/15-309
[44]  Vale, F., Albergaria, M., Carrilho, E., Francisco, I., Guimaraes, A., Caramelo, F. and Maló, L. (2017) Efficacy of Rapid Maxillary Expansion in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Journal of Evidence-Based Dental Practice, 17, 159-168.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebdp.2017.02.001
[45]  Filtness, A.J., Anund, A., Fors, C., Ahlstrom, C., Akerstedt, T. and Kecklund, G. (2014) Sleep-Related Eye Symptoms and Their Potential for Identifying Driver Sleepiness. Journal of Sleep Research, 23, 568-575.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12163
[46]  Alvaro, P.K., Jackson, M.L., Berlowitz, D.J., Swann, P. and Howard, M.E. (2016) Prolonged Eyelid Closure Episodes during Sleep Deprivation in Professional Drivers. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 12, 1099-1103.
https://doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.6044
[47]  Huon, L.K., Liu, S.Y., Camacho, M. and Guilleminault, C. (2016) The Association Between Ophthalmologic Diseases and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sleep and Breathing, 20, 1145-1154.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11325-016-1358-4
[48]  Skorin Jr., L. and Knutson, R. (2016) Ophthalmic Diseases in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 116, 522-529.
https://doi.org/10.7556/jaoa.2016.105
[49]  Choy, C.K., Cho, P., Chung, W.Y. and Benzie, I.F. (2001) Water-Soluble Antioxi-dants in Human Tears: Effect of the Collection Method. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 42, 3130-3134.
[50]  Choy, C.K., Benzie, I.F. and Cho, P. (2004) Is Ascorbate in Human Tears from Corneal Leakage or from Lacrimal Secretion? Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 87, 24-27.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1444-0938.2004.tb03142.x

Full-Text


comments powered by Disqus