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Correlation of Serum Anti-Helicobacter pylori Immunoglobulin A (IGA) with Histological Parameters of Chronic Gastritis in Ibadan, Nigeria

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Abstract:

Background: The seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori IgA antibodies has been reported to vary among populations and in relation to strains of Helicobacter pylori bacterium. However, there has been conflicting reports on the association between IgA serological status and the histological variables of chronic gastritis. This study was therefore conducted to clarify this relationship. Method : Using an ELISA based commercial kit, anti-H. pylori IgA antibody tests were performed on 65 dyspeptic patients and 65 age- and ex-matched controls. The gastric biopsies of these patients were also examined histologically for the degrees of inflammation, activity, intestinal metaplasia and atrophy. The CagA status of the patients had been determined previously. Results: There was an anti-H. pylori IgA antibody prevalence of 67.7% in dyspeptics and 56.9% in non-dyspeptic individuals. No correlations were observed between serum H. pylori IgA antibody and the graded parameters of chronic gastritis in dyspeptic patients, although twice more patients with mild gastric inflammation were found among IgA positive than among IgA negative patients. However, a statistically significant relationship was established between serum IgA positivity and the CagA status of the patients (p = 0.028). Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori IgA antibody is high in our environment. Serum IgA status may be associated with milder degrees of gastritis in our patients but a larger cohort of patients is needed to confirm this. There seems to be a good agreement between serum IgA and CagA statuses among dyspeptic patients.

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