Lung cancer is the second most commonly occurring non-cutaneous cancer in the United States with the highest mortality rate among both men and women. In this study, we utilized three lung cancer microarray datasets generated by previous researchers to identify differentially expressed genes, altered signaling pathways, and assess the involvement of Hedgehog (Hh) pathway. The three datasets contain the expression levels of tens of thousands genes in normal lung tissues and squamous cell lung carcinoma. The datasets were combined and analyzed. The dysregulated genes and altered signaling pathways were identified using statistical methods. We then performed Fisher's exact test on the significance of the association of Hh pathway downstream genes and squamous cell lung carcinoma. 395 genes were found commonly differentially expressed in squamous cell lung carcinoma. The genes encoding fibrous structural protein keratins and cell cycle dependent genes encoding cyclin-dependent kinases were significantly up-regulated while the ones encoding LIM domains were down. Over 100 signaling pathways were implicated in squamous cell lung carcinoma, including cell cycle regulation pathway, p53 tumor-suppressor pathway, IL-8 signaling, Wnt- -catenin pathway, mTOR signaling and EGF signaling. In addition, 37 out of 223 downstream molecules of Hh pathway were altered. The P-value from the Fisher's exact test indicates that Hh signaling is implicated in squamous cell lung carcinoma. Numerous genes were altered and multiple pathways were dysfunctional in squamous cell lung carcinoma. Many of the altered genes have been implicated in different types of carcinoma while some are organ-specific. Hh signaling is implicated in squamous cell lung cancer, opening the door for exploring new cancer therapeutic treatment using GLI antagonist GANT 61.