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Supercritical Fluid Chromatography- A Hybrid of GC and LC

Keywords: Supercritical fluid chromatography , mobile phase , modifier , critical temperature , critical pressure , mass spectrometry

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Abstract:

High performance specifications and unique functionality of chromatographic techniques is a demand of pharmaceutical industry and research. This leads to the origin of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC). It is a rapidly expanding analytical technique. The main feature that differentiates SFC from other chromatographic techniques is the replacement of either the liquid or gas mobile phase with a supercritical fluid mobile phase. It is considered a hybrid of GC and LC technique. High diffusion coefficient and low viscosity of supercritical fluids is responsible for high speed analysis, high efficiency and high sensitivity. Low mobile-phase flow rate, density programming and compatability with GC and LC detectors make SFC a versatile chromatographic technique in analytical research and development. It has a unique characteristic of analyzing thermo labile or non-volatile substances. This review highlights the role of supercritical fluid chromatography in the separation of polymers, thermally labile pesticides, fatty acids, metal chelates and organometallic compounds, chiral and achiral molecules, identification and analysis of polar samples, explosives, drugs of abuse and application of SFC in forensic science (fingerprinting).

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