The in ammatory response is modulated through interactions among the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Intercommunication between immune cells and the autonomic nervous system is a growing area of interest. Spatial and temporal information about in ammatory processes is relayed to the central nervous system (CNS) where neuroimmune modulation serves to control the extent and intensity of the in ammation. Over the past few decades, research has revealed various routes by which the nervous system and the immune system communicate. The CNS regulates the immune system via hormonal and neuronal pathways, including the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. The immune system signals the CNS through cytokines that act both centrally and peripherally. This review aims to introduce the concept of neuroimmune interaction and discuss its potential clinical application, in an attempt to broaden the awareness of this rapidly evolving area and open up new avenues that may aid in the treatment of in ammatory diseases.