Chironomus samoensis, as currently recognised, is not a single species but a complex of more or less closely related species. C. samoensis Edwards 1928 is redescribed from additional material, and considered to occur only in the Pacific region. Reasons for excluding material from other areas are given. C. flaviplumus Tokunaga 1940 is confirmed as the correct name for the Japanese material, the Indian material described by Chattopadhyay et al. (1991) is given the new name C. indiaensis, and new names are required for material from Australia and additional species from India.