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Artificial-Intelligence-Based Techniques to Evaluate Switching Overvoltages during Power System Restoration

DOI: 10.1155/2013/316985

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Abstract:

This paper presents an approach to the study of switching overvoltages during power equipment energization. Switching action is one of the most important issues in the power system restoration schemes. This action may lead to overvoltages which can damage some equipment and delay power system restoration. In this work, switching overvoltages caused by power equipment energization are evaluated using artificial-neural-network- (ANN-) based approach. Both multilayer perceptron (MLP) trained with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm and radial basis function (RBF) structure have been analyzed. In the cases of transformer and shunt reactor energization, the worst case of switching angle and remanent flux has been considered to reduce the number of required simulations for training ANN. Also, for achieving good generalization capability for developed ANN, equivalent parameters of the network are used as ANN inputs. Developed ANN is tested for a partial of 39-bus New England test system, and results show the effectiveness of the proposed method to evaluate switching overvoltages. 1. Introduction In recent years, due to economic competition and deregulation, power systems are being operated closer and closer to their limits. At the same time, power systems have increased in size and complexity. Both factors increase the risk of major power outages. After a blackout, power needs to be restored as quickly and reliably as possible, and, consequently, detailed restoration plans are nec [1–4]. One of the major concerns in power system restoration is the occurrence of overvoltages as a result of switching procedures. These can be classified as transient overvoltages, sustained overvoltages, harmonic resonance overvoltages, and overvoltages resulting from ferroresonance. Steady-state overvoltages occur at the receiving end of lightly loaded transmission lines as a consequence of line-charging currents (reactive power balance). Excessive sustained overvoltages may lead to damage of transformers and other power system equipment. Transient overvoltages are a consequence of switching operations on long transmission lines, or the switching of capacitive devices, and may result in arrester failures. Ferroresonance is a nonharmonic resonance characterized by overvoltages whose waveforms are highly distorted and can cause catastrophic equipment damages [1, 5]. Overvoltage will put the transformer into saturation, causing core heating and copious harmonic current generation. Circuit breaker called upon to operate during periods of high voltage will have reduced interrupting

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