There has been a drastic rise of tuberculosis (TB) infection across the world associated with the pandemic occurrence of HIV/AIDS. There are various determinants factors that increase the chance of TB infection among HIV positives (TB/HIV confection) that varies contextually. This study aimed to assess the determinants of TB/HIV coinfection among adult HIV positives attending clinical care at two public health facilities in Nekemte, western Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted from December 26, 2011, to February 29, 2012. Cases were 123？TB infected HIV positives, and controls were 246 non-TB infected HIV positives. Being divorced/widowed , 95% CI (1.70, 7.88), not attending formal education , 95% CI (2.20, 14.15), being underweight ( ？kg/m2) , 95% CI (2.18, 6.87), having history of diabetic mellitus , 95% CI (1.33, 9.94), and being in advanced WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging , 95% CI (1.32, 3.98), were determinant factors associated with TB/HIV co-infection. Having a separate kitchen , 95% CI (0.28, 0.81) showed protective role. For most of these determinants interventions can be made at individual and institutional levels, whereas, factors like education and nutrition need societal level integrations. 1. Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the world’s most common cause of death in the era of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is among the leading causes of death for people living with HIV (PLWHIV) which shares about twenty-five percent of all causes of the deaths . TB and HIV are called a “deadly duo” as HIV weakens the immune system and makes them more susceptible for TB infection. On the other hand, TB increases the progression of HIV to AIDS stage . Globally, more than 13 million people are TB/HIV coinfected. Of these, about seventy percent are living in sub-Saharan Africa . Ethiopia ranked seventh among the twenty-two high TB burden countries in the world . Hospital data indicated that TB is the leading cause of morbidity and the third cause of hospital admissions in the country . Studies indicated that certain HIV-infected people develop TB, while others do not. This phenomenon iterates that being HIV positive is not a mere factor for being infected with TB, and there are various determinants factors that contribute to the TB/HIV co-infection [6–8]. These factors vary contextually which necessitate conducting the present study. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the determinants of TB/HIV co-infection among HIV-positive adults attending clinical care at two public health facilities in Nekemte,
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