This study compares the hierarchical value maps (HVMs) for portal sites, smart phones, and social
network services (SNSs) according to means-end chain theory. Means-end chain theory offers insights
into how a media product satisfies the personal values of consumers. We derive the HVM for
each media and investigate the effect of involvement on the HVM structure. A total of 424 individuals
were queried for their opinions on the attributes, functional consequences, psychological
consequences, and value of each media product through association pattern technique laddering.
These elements constitute the value chain structure. Our findings show that the value of each media
is determined by involvement levels. For each media, high-involvement user groups regard
self-satisfaction as the most important value they aspire for. This study determines that different
levels of involvement do not affect the relationships among the elements of the value chain. HVMs
for smart phones, portal sites, and SNSs are focused on a special value. However, the level of involvement
generally does not seem to alter the structures of HVMs.
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Huber, F., Beckmann, S. C., & Herrmann, A. (2004). Means-End Analysis: Does the Affective State Influence Information Processing Style? Psychology & Marketing, 21, 715-737. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mar.20026
ter Hofstede, F., Audenaert, A., Steenkamp, J. E. M., & Wedel, M. (1998). An Investigation into the Association Pattern Technique as a Quantitative Approach to Measuring Means-End Chain. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 15, 37-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(97)00029-3