aim: our aim was to investigate whether land use from the adjacent terrestrial environment influences phytoplankton assemblage structure (composition, richness, diversity, and abundance) and biomass (chlorophyll-a) in a cerrado stream during different periods of the year. method: the fieldwork was carried out at each 3 months during two years. results: the physical and chemical variables that better indicated differences in water condition were conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and transparency. there was also a noticeable increase in the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended matter in the water during summer due to the direct effects of rainfall. the phytoplankton assemblages were composed by 64 species. cryptophyceae was the most abundant group, followed by bacillariophyceae. for both years, richness and diversity were higher during spring and autumn, while phytoplankton abundance and chlorophyll-a concentration were greater during autumn and summer. the cluster and the canonic correspondence analyses evidenced that seasonality and land use are important factors in structuring phytoplankton communities along the year. alterations in phytoplankton assemblages registered herein were probably a consequence of variations on intensity and frequency of water mixing, along with the input of nutrients from the adjacent terrestrial system. conclusion: overall phytoplankton assemblage structure showed to be highly influenced by land use, corroborating our initial hypothesis.