oalib
匹配条件: “” ,找到相关结果约100条。
列表显示的所有文章,均可免费获取
第1页/共100条
每页显示
Trans-Canada Slimeways: Slime mould imitates the Canadian transport network  [PDF]
Andrew Adamatzky,Selim G. Akl
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Slime mould Physarum polycephalum builds up sophisticated networks to transport nutrients between distant part of its extended body. The slime mould's protoplasmic network is optimised for maximum coverage of nutrients yet minimum energy spent on transportation of the intra-cellular material. In laboratory experiments with P. polycephalum we represent Canadian major urban areas with rolled oats and inoculated slime mould in the Toronto area. The plasmodium spans the urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We uncover similarities and differences between the protoplasmic network and the Canadian national highway network, analyse the networks in terms of proximity graphs and evaluate slime mould's network response to contamination.
Recontinentalizing Canada: Arctic Ice’s Liquid Modernity and the Imagining of a Canadian Archipelago  [PDF]
Phillip Vannini,Godfrey Baldacchino,Lorraine Guay,Stephen A. Royle
Island Studies Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Studying mobile actor networks of moving people, objects, images, and discourses, in conjunction with changing time-spaces, offers a unique opportunity to understand important, and yet relatively neglected, “relational material” dynamics of mobility. A key example of this phenomenon is the recontinentalization of Canada amidst dramatically changing articulations of the meanings and boundaries of the Canadian land-ice-ocean mass. A notable reason why Canada is being re-articulated in current times is the extensiveness of Arctic thawing. The reconfiguration of space and “motility” options in the Arctic constitutes an example of how “materiality and sociality produce themselves together.” In this paper we examine the possibilities and risks connected to this recontinentalization of Canada’s North. In exploring the past, present, and immediate future of this setting, we advance the paradigmatic view that Canada’s changing Arctic is the key element in a process of transformation of Canada into a peninsular body encompassed within a larger archipelagic entity: a place more intimately attuned to its immense (and growing) coastal and insular routes.
A feasible roadmap for unsupervised deconvolution of two-source mixed gene expressions  [PDF]
Niya Wang,Eric P. Hoffman,Robert Clarke,Zhen Zhang,David M. Herrington,Ie-Ming Shih,Douglas A. Levine,Guoqiang Yu,Jianhua Xuan,Yue Wang
Quantitative Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Tissue heterogeneity is a major confounding factor in studying individual populations that cannot be resolved directly by global profiling. Experimental solutions to mitigate tissue heterogeneity are expensive, time consuming, inapplicable to existing data, and may alter the original gene expression patterns. Here we ask whether it is possible to deconvolute two-source mixed expressions (estimating both proportions and cell-specific profiles) from two or more heterogeneous samples without requiring any prior knowledge. Supported by a well-grounded mathematical framework, we argue that both constituent proportions and cell-specific expressions can be estimated in a completely unsupervised mode when cell-specific marker genes exist, which do not have to be known a priori, for each of constituent cell types. We demonstrate the performance of unsupervised deconvolution on both simulation and real gene expression data, together with perspective discussions.
The Microbiological Condition of Canadian Beef Steaks Offered for Retail Sale in Canada  [cached]
M. Badoni,S. Rajagopal,J. L. Aalhus,M. D. Klassen
Journal of Food Research (JFR) , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jfr.v1n4p124
Abstract: Steaks of 4 types collected from 113 retails stores in 4 Canadian cities were frozen for storage. Swab samples collected from approximately 100 cm2 of each of 598 thawed steaks were processed for enumeration of bacteria. The fraction of steaks from which total aerobic counts (AER), psychrotrophs (PSY), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), pseudomonads(PSE) and Brochothrix thermosphacta (BRO) were not recovered at > 2 log cfu/100 cm2 were 3, 12, 8, 25 and 51%, respectively. The fractions of steaks from which coliforms (COL) and Escherichia coli (ECO) were not recovered at > 0 log cfu/ 100 cm2 were 56 and 92%, respectively. The log number per 100 cm2 recovered from > 90% of steaks were < 6 for AER, PSY and LAB, < 5 for PSE, <4 for BRO, and < 2 for COL. The microbiological conditions of groups of steaks of different types, from different cities or from different groups of stores were not substantially different.
The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region
Elias B, Kliewer EV, Hall M, Demers AA, Turner D, Martens P, Hong SP, Hart L, Chartrand C, Munro G
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S24292
Abstract: urden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region Original Research (2570) Total Article Views Authors: Elias B, Kliewer EV, Hall M, Demers AA, Turner D, Martens P, Hong SP, Hart L, Chartrand C, Munro G Published Date October 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 699 - 709 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S24292 Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro4 1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Background: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada). Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices. Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001), binge drinking (P < 0.001), obesity (P < 0.001) and diabetes (P < 0.001), and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029), and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001). Sex differences were also apparent. In addition, First Nations women reported significantly less uptake of mammography screening (P < 0.001) but similar rates for cervical cancer screening. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this retrospective study, the future cancer burden is expected to be high in the First Nations on-reserve population. Interventions, utilizing existing and new health and social authorities, and long-term institutional partnerships, are required to combat cancer risk disparities, while governments address economic disparities.
The Phalacridae (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea) of Canada: new records, distribution, and bionomics with a particular focus on the Atlantic Canadian fauna  [cached]
Christopher Majka,Matthew Gimmel,David Langor
ZooKeys , 2008, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.2.16
Abstract: The Canadian Phalacridae are briefly surveyed. Two species, Phalacrus politus Melsheimer and Olibrus vittatus LeConte, are newly recorded in Canada. As a result, eight phalacrids are now known to occur in Canada. Thirteen new provincial records are reported including one from Saskatchewan, two from Manitoba, two from New Brunswick, three from Nova Scotia, two from Prince Edward Island, and three from Newfoundland and Labrador. The four species and ten provincial records of Phalacridae reported from provinces in Atlantic Canada are the first records of this family in the region. Information on the bionomics of these species is briefly summarized. The species include Phalacrus penicillatus Say, Phalacrus politus Melsheimer (a smut-feeding species associated with corn, sorghum, and other grasses), Olibrus vittatus LeConte, Olibrus semistriatus LeConte (an abundant floricolous species found in the heads of several genera of Asteraceae), Acylomus pugetanus Casey (an ergot-feeding beetle associated with various grains and wild grasses), and Stilbus apicalis (Melsheimer) (an apparently surface-feeding, mold-grazing, facultatively parthenogenic species). The discovery of P. politus on insular Newfoundland is particularly noteworthy and represents a range extension of about 1,260 km. The possible origins of this apparently isolated and disjunct population are discussed, focusing on the glacial history of the region.
Control of antimicrobial resistance in Canada: any lessons to learn?
Lindsay E Nicolle
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2047-2994-1-6
Abstract: The Public Health Agency of Canada supports a reference laboratory for diagnosis and characterization of selected resistant strains, targeted surveillance programs which monitor resistance trends for selected animal and human organisms, development of national infection control guidelines including for antimicrobial resistant organisms, and a few local pilot projects to address community acquired MRSA. Sporadic programs of variable intensity and quality are supported by some provinces, health regions and individual facilities but these are not comprehensive, standardized or integrated. Individual researchers and research groups, however, have published substantial information describing the prevalence and impact of resistance in Canada.Current review of activities by the Public Health Agency of Canada and initiatives by the National Coordinating Centre for Infectious Diseases may move the country forward in developing an effective national approach to address antimicrobial resistance.Over the past 15 years, the problem of antimicrobial resistance in Canada has been repeatedly discussed at national meetings, with recommendations developed to address this problem in the Canadian context. Some key documents from these meetings are:1. Consensus Conference: Controlling antimicrobial resistance: An integrated action plan for Canadians (1997) [1]. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publications-eng.php#C webcite2. Uses of Antimicrobials in Food Animals in Canada: Impact on Resistance and Human Health. Report of the Advisory Committee on Resistance and Human Health (2002) [2]. http:/ / www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ dhp-mps/ pubs/ vet/ amr-ram_final_report-rapport_06-27c p-pc-eng.php webcite3. Proposed National Action plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance. Canadian Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance (2004).4. The Pan-Canadian Stakeholder Consultations on Antimicrobial Resistance, Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (2009).5. Consultation: Community acquired antimicrobial resistance,
The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region  [cached]
Elias B,Kliewer EV,Hall M,Demers AA
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada).Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001), binge drinking (P < 0.001), obesity (P < 0.001) and diabetes (P < 0.001), and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029), and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001). Sex differences were also apparent. In addition, First Nations women reported significantly less uptake of mammography screening(P < 0.001) but similar rates for cervical cancer screening.Conclusions: Based on the findings of this retrospective study, the future cancer burden is expected to be high in the First Nations on-reserve population. Interventions, utilizing existing and new health and social authorities, and long-term institutional partnerships, are required to combat cancer risk disparities, while governments address economic disparities.Keywords: indigenous population, cancer risk, health behaviors, metabolic diseases, cance
A Comparison between Atlantic Canadian and National Correction Equations to Improve the Accuracy of Self-Reported Obesity Estimates in Atlantic Canada  [PDF]
Cynthia L. Murray,Gordon W. Walsh,Sarah Connor Gorber
Journal of Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/492410
Abstract: Objectives. To determine whether obesity correction equations for the Canadian general population, which are dependent on the prevalence of obesity, are appropriate for use in Atlantic Canada, which has the highest obesity rates in the country. Also, to compare the accuracy of the national equations to equations developed specifically for the Atlantic Canadian population. Methods. The dataset consisted of Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2007-2008 data collected on 17,126 Atlantic Canadians and a subsample of adults, who provided measured height and weight (MHW) data. Atlantic correction equations were developed in the MHW subsample. Using separate multiple regression models for men and women, self-reported body mass index (BMI) was corrected by multiplying the self-reported estimate by its corresponding model coefficient and adding the model intercept. Paired t-tests were used to determine whether corrected mean BMI values were significantly more accurate (i.e., closer to measured data) than the equivalent means based on self-reported data. The analyses were repeated using the national equations. Results. Both the Atlantic and the national equations yielded corrected obesity estimates that were significantly more accurate than those based on self-report. Conclusion. The results provide some evidence of the generalizability of the national equations to atypical regions of Canada. 1. Introduction Obesity is a major cause of morbidity in Canada and in many parts of the world and it is increasing worldwide [1]. As indicated by a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 30?kg/m2, obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, several types of cancer, asthma, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, and chronic back pain [1, 2]. Class II+ obesity (BMI ≥ 35?kg/m2) is also associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality [3]. Obesity and its associated comorbidities exact a heavy toll on health care systems and expenditures. In Canada, the 2006 direct medical cost of overweight and obesity was $6.0 billion [4]. Against a global background comprising of 500 million obese adults [1], obesity has reached a historic high in Canada with one-quarter of adults and 9% of children meeting the definition [5]. Federal government statistical agencies, such as Statistics Canada and the National Center for Health Statistics, use large population-based studies to track nationwide obesity trends. Researchers usually use the BMI as a proxy to gauge obesity in these large national studies. According to Health Canada [6], although the BMI
Restructuring of Insolvent Corporations in Canada
JGA Krüger
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2010,
Abstract: The author spoke in August 2010 in Potchefstroom, giving an expert exposition of the Canadian law on the restructuring of insolvent corporations in Canada.
第1页/共100条
每页显示


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.