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Challenging the strategy paradigm within the paper packaging industry  [cached]
Olander, M.,Olsson, A.
International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management , 2012,
Abstract: Formulating and implementing a new strategy may be a challenging task, especially if it alters the way in which a company has operated and positioned itself before. This may be particularly true for companies within the forest industry, like manufacturers of paper packaging products, pursuing differentiated customer value and innovative solutions where, traditionally, success has been measured in volume and relative position on a cost curve. In theory there are different schools of thought and approaches on how to go about formulating and implementing strategy. In practice, going through strategic change may create a need to embrace new ways of thinking and acting in order to close the gap between formulation and implementation, between knowing what to do and doing it. This gap, particularly the interdependence between formulation and implementation in the context of change between strategies of different schools and assumptions, merits more attention in literature. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of strategic change, illustrating a change process of formulating and implementing a strategy through the lenses of schools of strategy and cognitive research. The purpose is also to suggest areas for future research and practical guidance for organisations aiming to break away from a reigning strategy paradigm in search for new ways to compete. Based on a longitudinal case study of Billerud, a Swedish world-leading manufacturer of paper packaging material, two propositions are suggested for future research and practical guidance for managers when formulating and implementing strategic change. Firstly for an organisation going through strategic change, understanding the assumptions behind different strategic intents and the link between a chosen strategy and critical core activities, capabilities and culture is a prerequisite to enable a transition. Secondly, strategic change is enabled through an iterative and probing approach between formulation and implementation which considers knowledge and learning of new concepts, activity and culture as situated.
Challenging the paradigm of singularity excision in gravitational collapse  [PDF]
Luca Baiotti,Luciano Rezzolla
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.141101
Abstract: A paradigm deeply rooted in modern numerical relativity calculations prescribes the removal of those regions of the computational domain where a physical singularity may develop. We here challenge this paradigm by performing three-dimensional simulations of the collapse of uniformly rotating stars to black holes without excision. We show that this choice, combined with suitable gauge conditions and the use of minute numerical dissipation, improves dramatically the long-term stability of the evolutions. In turn, this allows for the calculation of the waveforms well beyond what previously possible, providing information on the black-hole ringing and setting a new mark on the present knowledge of the gravitational-wave emission from the stellar collapse to a rotating black hole.
Globalization and Loss of Plant Knowledge: Challenging the Paradigm  [PDF]
Ina Vandebroek, Michael J. Balick
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037643
Abstract: The erosion of cultural knowledge and traditions as a result of globalization and migration is a commonly reported phenomenon. We compared one type of cultural knowledge about medicinal plants (number of plants reported to treat thirty common health conditions) among Dominican laypersons who self-medicate with plants and live in rural or urban areas of the Dominican Republic (DR), and those who have moved to New York City (NYC). Many plants used as medicines were popular Dominican food plants. These plants were reported significantly more often by Dominicans living in NYC as compared to the DR, and this knowledge was not age-dependent. These results contradict the popular paradigm about loss of cultural plant knowledge and is the first study to report a statistically measurable increase in this type of knowledge associated with migration.
Forest Fringe Communities Participation in Forest Reserve Sustainability in Ghana  [PDF]
Charles Adusei, Jasper Yao Dunyah
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2016.62009
Abstract: The paper investigated the forest fringe community’s participation in forest reserve sustainability in Ghana using Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana as a case study. The key issues examined are the forest reserve management strategies, stakeholder’s participation and livelihood activities of forest fringe communities. Two stage sampling technique was used to sample forty-two respondents for the study. A structured questionnaire in an interview form was used to solicit information from the respondents. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data. The results of the study indicate that there is a management plan for the forest reserve but Forest Services Division (FSD) does not follow its prescriptions strictly, the involvement of Forest Fringe Communities (FFCs) by FSD in the management of the forest reserve was insignificant and evidence of FSD not establishing income generating activity for FFCs livelihood sustenance. It is therefore recommended that community members should be empowered to play the role of co-managers of the forest reserve and there should be regular visit and interaction between FSD and the FFCs.
Endogenous Growth Paradigm. Implications for Economic Policy and Theory
Gabriel Staicu,Liviu-Catalin Moraru
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2006,
Abstract: The role played by endogenous growth models in growth literature might be analyzed from two perspectives. In the first place, is it emphasized the necessity to replace the hypothesis of perfect competition with monopolistic competition in every mathematical model. Secondly, there is no scientific argument to accept the assumption of unconditional income convergence among countries. Taking into consideration empirical evidence and theoretical arguments, we tried to demonstrate that, once we accept the existence of increasing returns, there is only a little place for convergence all over the world. From this perspective, we can accept the hypothesis of convergence only for some categories of countries characterized by homogeneity as regards institutional arrangement and geographical position.
The impact of forest reserves on livelihoods of fringe communities in Ghana
SE Edusah
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2011,
Abstract: This study looked at how the livelihoods of forest fringe communities have been affected by the constitution of four forest reserves in Brong Ahafo and Ashanti Regions of Ghana. The selection of the reserves for study was based on the fact that the reserves were surrounded by a number of relatively new and old settlements and have potential for socio-economic activities (agricultural production and ecotourism). Two main research approaches, structured questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were used in the data collection. A structured questionnaire together with open-ended questions was used to collect quantitative and qualitative information on household and community characteristics, including household incomes, farm sizes and tenancy arrangements. An open-ended questionnaire was designed for selected groups and community leaders to solicit their views and perceptions. The study found that farming was the main occupation of the people with cocoa and oil palm being the major cash crops grown in the area. Food crops grown include plantain, maize, cocoyam, cassava and rice. The major tenancy arrangements include family lands, outright purchase and sharecropping. Environmental problems in the area are decline in soil fertility, soil erosion, deforestation, bush fires and depletion of game and wildlife. Incomes were found to be low resulting in high poverty levels. The study shows that the communities have little role to play in the management of forest reserves.
Forest Sustainability in North Lebanon: A Challenging Complexity in a Changing Environment  [PDF]
Rita El-Hajj,Dalia Al-Jawhary,Tala Moukaddem,Carla Khater
International Journal of Forestry Research , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/212316
Abstract: Forests sustainability is a challenging task in a complex socioeconomic context. North Lebanon is a critical zone harboring forests of key ecological value and is one of the most deprived regions in Lebanon with high poverty rates, where forests are heavily impacted by unsustainable anthropogenic practices. In the global frame of climate change scenarios, this paper tests a multistakeholder, multidisciplinary approach for forest management, combining a joint participatory methodology with stakeholders along with field ecological surveys in the upper Akkar watershed (north Lebanon). A set of participatory tools including stakeholder’s analysis, problem tree, objective tree, and scenario building are tailored to reach this goal. Results exhibit that forest management is not only related to forests per se but also very much linked to the surrounding socioeconomic situation. Involving not only strict silviculture interventions but also a definite consideration of community needs and local economy, the adoption of a multitool, multidisciplinary, multistakeholder approach combines all possible aspects of a challenging context and unfolds complementary processes which all feed back into one target. Yet, it is a time-consuming process, which can easily drown financial and temporal resources and which can sometimes raise unrealistic expectations that are difficult to meet. 1. Introduction Forests are essential for human survival and well-being. They harbor two-thirds of all terrestrial animal and plant species and provide food, oxygen, shelter, recreation, and spiritual sustenance, as well as over five thousand commercially traded products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to timber and clothing [1]. Mediterranean forests in particular harbor a distinctive mix of stands offering various types of vital resources and services to the societies and economies bordering the Mediterranean basin [2]. However, the unsustainable and abusive use of forest resources as well as the changes in land use patterns in northern and southern Mediterranean has led to the depletion of their assets and will predictably contribute to a pronounced fragmentation in the 20 coming years [3]. The plodding effects of climate change will mainly exacerbate the consequences [4], especially that scientific evidence is further demonstrating that the climate is indeed changing [4, 5], even if the range of changes and the global distribution of the impacts are less apparent [6]. In this evolving natural and socioeconomic context, sustainable, integrated, and participatory forest management is
Ensuring Equitable Distribution Of Land In Ghana: Spirituality Or Policy? A Case Study From The Forest-Savanna Agroecological Zone Of Ghana  [PDF]
Samuel Awuah-Nyamekye,Paul Sarfo-Mensah
International Indigenous Policy Journal , 2011,
Abstract: This article explores the pent-up question of equitable distribution of land in Ghana using the Forest-Savanna Agroecological Zone as a case study. It focuses on the dichotomy of policy versus indigenous spirituality in contemporary distribution of land in Ghana. After independence several attempts have been made to restructure land title holding in Ghana by way of land registration. The effectiveness of these attempts is also examined. The paper concludes that Ghana needs pragmatic steps (policies) to confront the challenges of land distribution. And in taking these pragmatic policies, the religio-cultural underpinnings (the people`sworldview) of land issues in Ghana should be factored into the policy that will result. Anything short of this will make the implementation of any land policy in Ghana ineffective.
Wildfire Management in the Tain II Forest Reserve of Ghana: An Evaluation of Community Participation
Enoch Akwasi Kosoe, Issaka Kanton Osumanu, Victor Rex Barnes
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101964
Abstract: Until 1983 uncontrolled wildfires were uncommon, especially in the forest zones of Ghana. Unfortunately early efforts at curbing wildfires did not place emphasis on stakeholder management. This weakness has constrained wildfire management as a result of weak coordination among stakeholders in the management of wildfire. But an essential element for the success of wildfire management is the active involvement of all stakeholders. This study was conducted to assess the role of stakeholders in wildfire management in the Tain II Forest Reserve in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. The study relied on both qualitative and quantitative approaches using household questionnaires as its primary data collection instrument. The study reveals that stakeholders occasionally participated in wildfire management planning, implementation and monitoring activities at the community level. This assertion was confirmed by the index of participation indicating that stakeholders were occasionally involved in wildfire management regarding planning (0.59), implementation (0.60) and monitoring (0.56). Also, empirical results show that the absence of incentives and lack of insurance serve as disincentives for effective functioning of wildfire squad volunteers around the Tain II forest reserve. The study concludes that the success, or otherwise, of wildfire management interventions, to a large extent, depends on the degree of involvement of stakeholders and the support given to them.
Evaluation of three classifiers in mapping forest stand types using medium resolution imagery: a case study in the Offinso Forest District, Ghana
NB Baatuuwie, L Van Leeuwen
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Loss of Ghana’s natural forests has been counteracted by plantation establishment and development. As at 2003, Ghana had a plantation area of about 97,000 hectares comprising different tree species. With the rapid expansion of plantations in the country, it is anticipated that major managerial challenges will arise due to insignificant technical personnel for monitoring and management. The application of GIS and remote sensing will be a powerful intervention and tool for monitoring and managing these forest resources in the area. The aim of this study was to determine a suitable method of mapping the different forest stand types using medium resolution images in the study area. Three classifiers were examined for their suitability in mapping the different forest stand types in the area (maximum likelihood, spectral angle mapper and decision tree). The results showed that using maximum likelihood classifier and ASTER imagery, different forest stand types can be accurately mapped with an overall accuracy of 88.50%.
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