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Modified Legendre Collocation Block Method for Solving Initial Value Problems of First Order Ordinary Differential Equations  [PDF]
Toyin Gideon Okedayo, Ayodele Olakiitan Owolanke, Olaseni Taiwo Amumeji, Muyiwa Philip Adesuyi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104565
Abstract:
In this paper, block procedure for some k-step linear multi-step methods, using the Legendre polynomials as the basis functions, is proposed. Discrete methods were given which were used in block and implemented for solving the initial value problems, being continuous interpolant derived and collocated at grid points. Some numerical examples of ordinary differential equations were solved using the derived methods to show their validity and the accuracy. The numerical results obtained show that the proposed method can also be efficient in solving such problems.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISTANCE EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: Challenges and Prospects
Muyiwa ADEYEMI
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2011,
Abstract: Distance Education as an alternative to the traditional face-to-face education has been seen as the teaching-learning process in which students are separated from the teachers by a physical distance, which is often bridged by modern communication. It comprises all patterns of student-centered learning process in which the teacher has limited role. In Nigeria, Africa, the introduction of this form of learning programme, is relatively new and therefore pose some challenges to all stakeholders in the education industry. In trying to meet up with the enormous demands for formal education, Nigerian government established some institutions for distance learning. These included the National Teachers Institute (NTI), the National Open University (NOUN) among others. This paper therefore, examined the historical development of this programme and particularly in Nigeria, the theories and philosophies of distance education, the challenges and prospects of the programme in the country.
Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Soils and Vegetation around Selected Industries in Lagos State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Adeola Alex Adesuyi, Kelechi Longinus Njoku, Modupe Olatunde Akinola
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.37002
Abstract: In this study, eleven soil samples and twenty-twoplants samples were collected in the vicinity of eleven industries and a thermal station was analyzed for zinc, copper, iron, lead and cadmium. Soil sample from Egbin thermal station had the highest concentration of Zn (141.06 mg/kg) and Cu (131.70 mg/kg). Soil from international textile had the highest level of Fe and the soil from Ni-chemtex had the highest concentration Pb and Cd was the highest in soil from Guinness (28.91 mg/kg, 59.80 mg/kg and 1.72 mg/kg respectively). The highest concentrations of the heavy metals were observed from different plants species. Analyses of variance (p < 0.05) showed that heavy metal variation in plant and soil samples were not significant (p > 0.5). There were positive correlations between the heavy metals in the soils and the plant samples indicated that the plants obtained the heavy metals from the soil. Plants having BCF values less than one had limited ability to accumulate, translocate and phytoextract heavy metals. These plants in this study with higher Bioconcentration Factor value especially those greater than one (Croton lobatus, Borreria sp., Cy-athula prostrata, Lantana camara, Ficus sp., Mimosa pudica, Eclipta prostrata, Commelina sp. etc.) were suggested for further research and assessment on their bioaccumulation abilities and phy-toremediation potential.
Feasibility Study of Off-grid Hybrid Energy Systems for Applications in Ondo State Nigeria
Muyiwa S. Adaramola
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/jeasci.2012.72.78
Abstract: The feasibility study of using hybrid energy systems for electricity generation in rural communities in Ondo state in the South-West of Nigeria is investigated in this study. Renewable resources (wind and solar) data in Akure which is the capital of the state is used as case study. Akure is located on the latitude of 7.25°N and longitude 5.20°E. The effect of diesel price, changes in wind speed and daily global solar radiation on optimal hybrid energy system and the cost of a unit of electricity were studied. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable software has been employed to carry out the present study. It is found that wind-PV-diesel hybrid system is feasible as stand-alone electricity generating system in Ondo state. The optimal simulation results indicate that the levelised cost of energy varies between $0.578 and $0.682 kWh-1 depends on the system configuration and diesel price. These costs are significantly lower than the cost of using diesel generator only (without battery) which varies between $0.913 and $1.319 kWh-1.
Heavy Metal Composition of Some Solid Minerals in Nigeria and Their Health Implications to the Environment
Adeseye Muyiwa Arogunjo
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Heavy metals overload taken via ingestion, inhalation and dermal have been found to be detrimental to both the occupationally exposed group and member of the public. The body burden of these metals has been a source of concern in environmental safety regulatory programs. The risk factor becomes potentially high in an environment where regulatory safety criteria are either neglected or not available. The implication of indiscriminate or unregulated mining activities has been pointed out as a major risk to public health. In order to assess the potential toxicological and radiological health hazard posed to the environment due to mining activities in Nigeria, solid mineral ores (iron, tin and tantalite) from south-western and north-central (Kogi and Ekiti States) part of the country were analysed for their trace-metal contents. The analysis was performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analyses spanning several months between 2005 and 2006. The samples were found to contain some major, minor and trace elements of varying concentrations. The elements reported here are K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ta, Re, Th, U, Sc, Cd, Bi, Ra and Zn. Toxic metal of serious environmental and public concern like Cadmium was detected. The possibility of altering heavy metal constituents of the natural ecosystem as a result of mining activities and the implications of such alterations has been enumerated. Possible pathway into the food chain as a result of mining activity has also been presented.
Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics of Sediment from Nwaja Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria  [PDF]
Adeola Alex Adesuyi, Moses Okafor Ngwoke, Modupe Olatunde Akinola, Kelechi Longinus Njoku, Anuoluwapo Omosileola Jolaoso
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.41002
Abstract: Sediments are complex environments, with varying physicochemical characteristics, such as composition and type of organic matter, particle size distribution, and pH. Contaminated sediment is a significant environmental problem affecting many marine, estuarine and freshwater environments throughout the world. Most assessments of water quality have historically focused on water-soluble compounds, with relatively little attention paid to sediment. The aim of this research is to assess the physical and chemical parameters of sediments from Nwaja Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Monitoring of this sediment quality is an important part of preserving and restoring the biological integrity of water bodies as well as protecting aquatic life, wild life and human health. Sediment samples from Nwaja Creek were sampled from seven sampling stations along the creek for over three months May to July, 2015, rainfall peak period, for assessment of their physical and chemical characteristics, such as grain size, organic carbon, pH, conductivity, nitrate and phosphate. These parameters are known to influence the interactions and dynamics of pollutants within sediment matrix. Sediment particle size distribution indicates that they have higher proportion of clay (clay > silt > sand), the mean percentage composition of clay, silt and sand ranged between 64.28% ± 22.04% - 72.36% ± 14.00%, 18.71% ± 12.03% - 27.32% ± 22.17% and 8.40% ± 6.28% - 9.76% ± 4.59% respectively. TOC in the study area is generally above 1% across all stations during the study period with a range between 0.98% and 4.58%. Minimal monthly and spatial variations are observed in particle distribution, pH (3.9 - 8.5) and phosphate (5.5 - 15.5 kg/mg) while significant variations are observed in conductivity (23.0 - 567.0 uS/cm), total organic carbon (0.98% - 4.58%) and nitrate (0.45 - 11.9 mg/kg) concentration. It is concluded that physicochemical characteristics of the sediments from Nwaja Creek are influenced by anthropogenic sources rather than natural as shown by the elevated phosphate and nitrate levels because the Niger Delta geology is not essentially rich in nitrate and its excess in surface or groundwater is considered as pollutant.
Assessment of Activity Concentration of Radionuclides in Sediment from Oil Producing Communities of Delta State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Caroline Nihinlola Iwetan, Ibiyinka Agboola Fuwape, Adeseye Muyiwa Arogunjo, Ganiyu Obor
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.66058
Abstract: Activity concentrations of twenty-six (26) samples of sediment collected from rivers from eleven (11) oil-producing communities and two (2) non-oil producing communities in Delta state of Nigeria were studied. Hyper Purity Germanium (HPGe) Detector was used for counting and detection of radionuclide content of all samples. Results of the samples analysed showed that the radioactivity concentrations of K40, Th232 and U238 in the sediment samples from oil-producing areas range from 32.47 Bq·kg-1 to 525.1 Bq·kg-1 with an average of 302.15 Bq·kg-1, 6.31 Bq·kg-1 to 19.33 Bq·kg-1 with an average of 11.66 Bq·kg-1, and 4.45 Bq·kg-1 to 18.69 Bq·kg-1 with an average of 8.66 Bq·kg-1 respectively. Activity concentrations at the control site ranged from 3.15 Bq·kg-1 to 4.80 Bq·kg-1, 2.27 Bq·kg-1 to 4.18 Bq·kg-1 and 1.15 Bq·kg-1 to 1.76 Bq·kg-1 for K40, Th232 and U238. These values are within the world average; natural radioactivity mapping of the study area is carried out using the Surfer software. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there is a significant difference between the radionuclide concentrations of the sediment samples from rivers in the oil producing site compared to results from non-oil producing communities, except for one of the oil producing site samples (Idumuesah) which has values that are close to those from the control sites for K40. The values of the radiological assessment indices obtained were observed to be within the permissible maximum values; hence the radiation hazard at study areas are negligible. However, concentration values of studied radionuclide at the oil-producing study areas were observed to be higher than values from the non-oil producing sites in most cases. It could therefore be reported that the operations of the oil companies in Delta state of Nigeria may have contributed to the high radioactivity level of the river sediments. Although the concentration at the time of this study poses no risk, further industrial activities in the study area may raise the activity concentration and radiological burden in the future.
Analysis and Computation of the Performance of Micro Finance Banks in Nigeria---A Case Study of Standard Microfinance Bank, Yola
Ngutor Nyor,Adeyinka Adesuyi Falaye,Elijah Onah,Agnes Nyor
Progress in Applied Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.3968/j.pam.1925252820130501.1997
Abstract: This paper deals with the analysis and computation of the performance of Microfinance Banks in Nigeria in terms of credit performance, portfolio growth, link relative portfolio growth, and categorization of portfolio, food security and employment generation using a case study of Standard Microfinance Bank, Yola. The withdrawal of licenses from 103 out of 407 listed Microfinance Banks in Nigeria was a concern to the researcher, being that Microfinance institutions are the major financial servers to the majority of Nigerians who are low income earners that are hardly served by the commercial banks. Using a standardard computer package, the chi-square test application shows that, although the portfolio growth of Standard Microfinance Bank Yola is not averagely 50.20% as claimed by the bank, there is an appreciable growth of 28.96%. But again, with 2005 as the base period, it recorded all time high link relative total portfolio growth of 548%. And other indices such as credit performance of the bank and portfolio by category indicate that microfinance banking in the country may be heading to the right direction except for grossly inadequate portfolio allocation of 6% for Agriculture which is supposed to be in the driving sit of the food security and employment generation. In trying times for institutions such as Microfinance Banks which bear benefits to the masses, it is recommended that either or both the regulatory body or/and the institution should publish a hope-giving-information that will dispel the possibility of the public completely losing hope in such institutions. And also calculated attempt be made to reform the land use act of March 1978 coupled with insurance provision for farmers to ease access to fund.
Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract of ,em>Azadiractha indica Stem Bark and Telfairia occidentalis Leaf
C.P. Anokwuru,O. Ajibaye,A. Adesuyi
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The antioxidant activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark and Telfairia occidentalis leaf aqueous extract was studied. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC) was determined using folin Ciocalteu method while the Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) was determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) inhibition. Telfairia occidentalis extracted more phenols (11.32g GAE/ 100g) than Azadirachta indica stem bark (10.74g GAE/100g) but not significantly different (p<0.05). Azadirachta indica stem bark extracted more flavonoid content (5.21g QE/100g) than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (0.96g QE/100g). Azadirachta indica stem bark inhibited more free radicals (83%) than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (65%). This study showed that Azadirachta indica stem bark had higher antioxidant activity compared to Telfairia occidentalis leaf.
Billateral Femoral Osteomyelitis Following Venous Cutdown  [PDF]
Gbenga Muyiwa Akinsorotan, Samuel Uwale Eyesan, Dike Chijoke Obalum, Joseph Chinedum Itie, Chukwudi Benjamin Aroh, Afolabi Benjamin Abiodun
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2013.37056
Abstract:

Obtaining rapid access in emergency situations for infusion of IV fluids, blood and blood products or medications is vital in using various methods. These include venopuncture, intraosseous infusion, percutanous central venous access and peripheral venous cut-down. We report a case of a 30-year-old woman who developed severe obstetric hemorrhage and had peripheral venous cut-down that was complicated by bilateral femoral osteomyelitis. This is a rare occurrence and this case report shows the need for strict adherence to safety precautions to prevent complications such as that from the procedure.

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