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Effect of mancozeb-treated lettuce (Lactuca sativa) on wistar rat liver
Y Adjrah, SD Karou, A Agbonon, K Eklu-Gadegbeku, C de Souza, M Gbeassor
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management , 2013,
Abstract: Vegetable contamination by pesticides presents current problem of public health. Previous studies have shown that 60% vegetables sampled collected in Lomé (Togo) have pesticide residues exceeding the tolerable limits. Because mancozeb, ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate, is mainly used, more than five times, during the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa), the aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the potential effect of mancozeb-treated lettuce on the rat liver physiology. Mancozeb-treated lettuce and two doses of mancozeb were administered during 28 days to rats. Along the study, animal behavior was assessed, and at the end of administration, some hepatic enzymes such as transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were studied. The decrease in rat body weight was noted and animals have soft feces. Plasmatic concentrations of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin are increased in rats administered with mancozeb-treated lettuce. The plasmatic concentration of total protein is not decreased significantly. Those results indicate that lettuce collected directly from gardens, without washing or less washed, are not fit for human consumption.
Anti-ulcer and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Hydroalcohol Extract of Aloe buettneri A. Berger (Lilliaceae)
K Metowogo, A Agbonon, K Eklu-Gadegbeku, AK Aklikokou, M Gbeassor
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2008,
Abstract: Purpose: Aloe buettneri A. Berger is commonly used in Togolese folk medicine to treat inflammation and gastric ulcer. In this study we investigated the anti-oedema, analgesic, antipyretic and ulcer healing properties of the hydro-alcohol extract of their leaves. Methods: Rat oedema paw were induced by the injection of 0.1 ml of formaldehyde 1%, tail flick method is used to study analgesic property, hyperthermia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 15% of a brewers\' yeast suspension at dose of 10 ml/kg and ulcers were induced by ethanol or HCl/ethanol mixture. Results: The extract showed anti-inflammatory properties at doses between 250-500 mg/kg. It inhibited, in a dose- dependent manner, the oedema induced by 0.1 ml of formaldehyde 1%. Scores of 73.70% and 83.63% were obtned when the doses of extract administered were 100 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. The tail flick analgesic index showed an increase of 36.56% when the dose was 500 mg/kg. The extract decreased significantly the hyperthermia induced by the injection of yeast. 1000 mg/kg of the extract inhibited 63.77% of the gastric lesion induced by acid-water-ethanol mixture while daily administration of the same dose accelerated the cicatrisation of gastric ulcer induced by 95% ethanol. Conclusion: The results obtained show that the hydro-alcohol extract of Aloe buettneri A. Berger (Lilliaceae) has anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and wound healing properties
Antimicrobial Activities of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) Fruit Extracts on Six Standard Microorganisms and Their Clinical Counterpart  [PDF]
Y.-G. Afanyibo, K. Anani, K. Esseh, Y. Sadji, K. Idoh, K. Koudouvo, A. Agbonon, Y. Améyapoh, K. Tozo, M. Gbeassor
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104951
Abstract:
Syzygium aromaticum is used in combination with other plants as an al-coholic infusion by traditional practitioners to treat infections. It has been selected for evaluation for its antimicrobial properties to justify its use in traditional pharmacopoeia. The fruits were used as plant material while the microbial germs consisted of six reference strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Candida albicans ATCC 35659 and their clinical counterparts. The extracts were obtained by aqueous decoction, hydroethanolic and ethanolic macerations. The phytochemical screening was performed by chemical staining tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the well diffusion method and the MIC and MBC or MFC were determined using the 96-well microplate dilution method. The results showed that 66.67% of the strains tested were sensitive to the aqueous extract with inhibition diameters ranging from 15 to 21 mm and MIC and MCB or MFC between 0.0976 - 0.3906 mg/mL and 0.1953 - 07812 mg/mL respectively, thus determining bacteriostatic activity. 100% of the germs tested were sensitive to hydroethanolic and ethanolic extracts. The inhibition diameters range from 12 - 28 mm for hydroethanolic extract with MIC and MBC or MFC ranging from 0.0488 - 0.3906 mm and 0.0488 - 0.7812 mm respectively. The ethanolic extract gave inhibition diameters of 12 - 26 mm; MIC and MBC or MFC ranging from 0.0976 - 0.7812 mm. Hydroethanolic extract gave three (3) bactericidal/fungicidal activities compared to four (4) as for ethanolic extract. These results prove the use of S. aromaticum among traditional recipes for treating infections in the pharmacopoeia but further studies remain important to produce traditionally improved drugs.
Effect of Ethanolic Extract of pluchea ovalis root in Asthma model of Wistar Rat
Amegnona Agbonon,Kodjo Aklikokou,Kwashie Eklu-Gadegbeku,Koffi Akpagana
Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas , 2005,
Abstract: El extracto de raíces de Pluchea ovalis se usa en el tratamiento del asma por vía oral. El asma es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica, caracterizada por bronco-constricción, inflamación infiltración celular inflamatoria, y extravasación de plasma en las vías aéreas. El objeto de este estudio fue investigar los efectos del extracto etanólico de raíces de P. ovalis en algunos parámetros del asma. Tratando ratas sensibilizadas con dicho extracto, determinamos el efecto de la administración in vivo de histamina, el número de leucocitos y la extravasación de Azul de Evans en el fluido bronco alveolar. Hemos examinado asimismo el efecto del extracto en traquea de rata aislada en presencia de histamina incubada con: (1) indometacina, (2) indometacina + propranolol y (3) indometacina + propranolol + atropina. Nuestros resultados demuestran que el extracto etanolico de raíces de P. ovalis reduce significativamente el incremento de la presión pulmonar inducida por histamina in vivo, la infiltración celular y parcialmente la extravasación en las vías aéreas. El extracto inhibió la contracción de la traquea en todas las condiciones. Concluimos que el extracto etanólico de raíces de P. ovalis reduce significativamente los síntomas del asma en ratas Wistar
Antidiabetic Activity of Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn (Euphorbiaceae) on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Wistar Rats
Povi Lawson-Evi,Kwashie Eklu-Gadegbeku,Amegnona Agbonon,Kodjo Aklikokou
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: This study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn, a medicinal plant used in Togo for treatingdiabetes and many others diseases. Diabetes was induced in fasted rats (12 h) by a single intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg kg-1 of alloxan monohydrate. Two doses (500 and 1000 mg kg-1) of the both extracts of Phyllanthus amarus were administered orally to diabetic rats. The normal control group receives distilled water only. After 15 days treatment, body weight gain, blood glucose level, serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde were evaluated. At the doses tested, aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of P. amarus decrease significantly blood glucose level after 15 days of administration. Aqueous extract reduce body weight gain contrary to hydroalcoholic extract. Serum insulin increases in group treated with extracts in compared to diabetic control group. The hydroalcoholic extract reduce the malondialdehyde concentration in the serum. Values of total cholesterol and triglycerides are similar in all the groups. This study demonstrated the potential antidiabetic property of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of Phyllanyhus amarus thus justifying its traditional usage.
A Comparative Investigation of Lead Sulfate and Lead Oxide Sulfate Study of Morphology and Thermal Decomposition  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.22024
Abstract: The compound lead oxide sulfate PbSO4.PbO was prepared in our laboratory. The Thermal behavior of PbSO4 was studied using techniques of Thermogravimetry under air atmosphere from 25 to 1200°C. The identity of both compounds was confirmed by XRD technique. Results obtained using both techniques support same decomposition stages for this compound. The electron microscopic investigations are made by SEM and TEM. The compound is characterized by XRD and the purity was determined by analytical Methods. Also a series of thermogravimetric analysis is made and the ideal condition is determined to convert this compound to pure lead oxide.
Metal ion-binding properties of L-glutamic acid and L-aspartic acid, a comparative investigation  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.22013
Abstract: A comparative research has been developed for acidity and stability constants of M(Glu)1, M(Asp)2 and M(Ttr)3 complexes, which have been determined by potentiometric pH titration. Depending on metal ion-binding properties, vital differences in building complex were observed. The present study indicates that in M(Ttr) com-plexes, metal ions are arranged to the carboxyl groups, but in M(Glu) and M(Asp), some metal ions are able to build chelate over amine groups. The results mentioned-above demonstrate that for some M(Glu) and M(Asp) complexes, the stability constants are also largely determined by the affinity of metal ions for amine group. This leads to a kind of selectivity of metal ions, and transfers them through building complexes accompanied with glutamate and aspartate. For heavy metal ions, this building complex helps the absorption and filtration of the blood plasma, and consequently, the excursion of heavy metal ions takes place. This is an important method in micro-dialysis. In this study the different as-pects of stabilization of metal ion complexes regarding to Irving-Williams sequence have been investigated.
Determining the Basaltic Sequence Using Seismic Reflection and Resistivity Methods  [PDF]
A. Alanezi, A. Qadrouh
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.32B004
Abstract:

This study was carried out in Harat Rahat (south of Almadinah Almonwarah) using seismic reflection and resistivity methods. The main objectives of this study are to determine the extent of the basaltic layer and to define the subsurface faults and fractures that could affect and control the groundwater movement in the study area. A 2D seismic profile was acquired and the result shows that the subsurface in the study area has a major fault. We obtained a well match when the seismic result was compared with drilled wells. As a complementary tool, the resistivity method was applied in order to detect the groundwater level. The results of the resistivity method showed that six distinct layers have been identified. The interpretation of these six layers show that the first three layers, the fourth layer, the fifth layer and the bottom of the section indicated various subsurface structures and lithologies; various basaltic layers, fractured basalt, weathered basement and fresh basaltic layers, respectively. It is obvious that the eventual success of geophysical surveys depend on the combination with other subsurface data sources in order to produce accurate maps.

Equilibria and Stability in Glycine, Tartrate and Tryptophan Complexes, Investigation on Interactions in Cu(II) Binary and Ternary Systems in Aqueous Solution  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
Open Journal of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials (OJINM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojinm.2014.41001
Abstract:

The acidity and stability constants of M(Gly)1, M(Ttr)1, and M(Trp)1 M: Cu2+, Cu(Bpy2)2+, and Cu(Phen3)2+ complexes, were determined by potentiometric pH titration. It is shown that the stability of the binary Cu(L), (L: Gly, Ttr, and Trp) complex is determined by the basicity of the carboxylate group on one side and amino group on the other side. It is demonstrated that the equilibrium, Cu(Ha4)2+ + Cu(L) \"\"Cu(Har)(L) + Cu2+, is displacement due to the well known experience that mixed ligand complexes formed by a divalent 3d ion, a heteroaromatic N base and an O donor ligand possess increased stability. The stability constants of the 1:1 complexes formed between Cu2+, Cu(Bpy)2+ or Cu(Phen)2+

Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller for Grid Interface Ocean Wave Energy Conversion  [PDF]
Adel A. A. Elgammal
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications (JILSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2014.62006
Abstract:

This paper presents a closed-loop vector control structure based on adaptive Fuzzy Logic Sliding Mode Controller (FL-SMC) for a grid-connected Wave Energy Conversion System (WECS) driven Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG). The aim of the developed control method is to automatically tune and optimize the scaling factors and the membership functions of the Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC) using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms (MOGA) and Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO). Two Pulse Width Modulated voltage source PWM converters with a carrier-based Sinusoidal PWM modulation for both Generator- and Grid-side converters have been connected back to back between the generator terminals and utility grid via common DC link. The indirect vector control scheme is implemented to maintain balance between generated power and power supplied to the grid and maintain the terminal voltage of the generator and the DC bus voltage constant for variable rotor speed and load. Simulation study has been carried out using the MATLAB/Simulink environment to verify the robustness of the power electronics converters and the effectiveness of proposed control method under steady state and transient conditions and also machine parameters mismatches. The proposed control scheme has improved the voltage regulation and the transient performance of the wave energy scheme over a wide range of operating conditions.

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