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Seasonal Analysis of Transformations of the Multiplicative Time Series Model
Iheanyi S. Iwueze,Anthony C. Akpanta,Hycinth C. Iwu
Asian Journal of Mathematics & Statistics , 2008,
Abstract: Transformations of the purely multiplicative time series model will either remain the purely multiplicative model or the additive time series model. These transformations are required to meet the variant assumptions on either the multiplicative or the additive models with respect to the seasonal component. When these assumptions are met, a transformation is regarded as being successful with respect to the seasonal component. This study deals with the methods required in the determination of intervals for the seasonal indices for successful transformations. Intervals derived are found to lie in the neighbourhood of 1.0. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the results obtained.
Socio-Demographic Determinants of Family Planning Service Utilization among Women of Reproductive Age in Urban Communities of Imo State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Chukwuma B. Duru, Obiageli F. Emelumadu, Anthony C. Iwu, Ikechi Ohanle, Chuka C. Agunwa, Ernest Nwaigbo, Emmanuel N. Ndukwu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104627
Abstract:
Introduction: Many developing countries are characterized by rapid population growth, which is partly attributed to high fertility rates, high birth rates, accompanied by steady declines in death rates, low contraceptive use and high but declining mortality rate. AIM: To determine the factors influencing family planning method use among women of reproductive age in urban communities of Imo state, Nigeria. Methodology: The study was a community based descriptive cross-sectional study involving 560 women of reproductive age who met the inclusion criteria and were selected using the multistage sampling technique. The data were collected using a pretested, semi-structured and interviewer administered questionnaire and were analyzed using EPI-INFO version 3.2.1. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 32.7 ± 7.7 years with most of the women (99.1%) being aware of family planning. The common methods known were; pills (65.2%), injections (62.5%), condoms (61.3%) and natural family planning methods (49.5%). The prevalence of ever use and current use of family planning was 54.1% and 35.1% respectively and the commonest method ever (36%) and currently (26%) used was the condom. The factors found to significantly influence family planning method use in the study were: age of women, religion, family size, number of male children, monthly income, being able to access and pay for family planning services without partners financial support, contraceptive knowledge, prior discussion of family planning with partner, partner being in support of modern family planning methods use and previous use of any form of contraception. Conclusion: Most of the factors found to influence use can be modified by appropriate intervention programs.  Thus there is need to institute these intervention programs by authorities concerned so as to increase utilization of services and reduce consequent problems.
Knowledge, Attitude and the Prevalence of HIV Counselling and Testing among Secondary In-School Adolescents in Orlu Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Anthony C. Iwu, Henry N. Chineke, Kevin C. Diwe, Chukwuma B. Duru, Kenechi A. Uwakwe, Emmanuel C. Azuike, Ugochukwu C. Madubueze, Chukwuyem Abejegah, Emmanuel U. Ndukwu, Ikechi Ohale
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2017.72008
Abstract: Background: Adolescence is a period of vulnerability with the onset of multiple risky behaviour which exposes them to HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases and as such, the timely introduction and uptake of strategies like HIV Counselling and Testing will reduce transmission and provide access to preventive services. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and prevalence of HIV Counselling and Testing among secondary in-school adolescents in Orlu Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional analytical study design was used that selected students aged 13 - 19 years in senior classes SS1 to SS3 attending secondary schools. Data was collected using a pretested, semi-structured questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were done with frequencies and summary statistics. Chi square statistic was computed and p value was set at 0.05 significant level. Results: Though most of the respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS (99%) and HIV Counselling and Testing (92%), the majority of the respondents had a poor level of overall knowledge (61%) and attitude (70%) towards HIV Counselling and Testing. The prevalence of HIV Counselling and Testing amongst the respondents was very low (7%). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant relationship between the level of overall knowledge and level of overall attitude towards HIV Counselling and Testing (p < 0.000). Conclusion: Identifying and closing the gaps in their knowledge and attitude towards HIV Counselling and Testing, will form the basis for the introduction of adolescent-tailored strategies that will further encourage and improve voluntary and confidential uptake of HIV Counselling and Testing among the adolescents.
Occupational Hazards, Safety and Hygienic Practices among Timber Workers in a South Eastern State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Kevin C. Diwe, Chukwuma B. Duru, Anthony C. Iwu, Irene A. Merenu, Kenechi A. Uwakwe, Uche R. Oluoha, Tope B. Ogunniyan, Ugochukwu C. Madubueze, Ikechi Ohale
Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine (ODEM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/odem.2016.43008
Abstract: Background: Timber workers, especially in developing countries, are faced with challenges of prevention and control of work place hazards and illnesses. Objective: To determine the awareness of occupational hazards, effects, safety and hygienic practices among timber workers in a South Eastern State in Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive design that used the total population of timber workers involved in the processing and marketing of wood in three major timber markets in a South Eastern State in Nigeria. Data was collected using a pretested semistructured questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were done with frequencies and summary statistics. Results: The majority of the respondents were aware of the hazardous nature of wood dust (96%) and their main source of awareness was from personal experiences (55%). In spite of the fact that the predominant hazard effects in the majority were nose, throat irritation and cough (33%), the majority were of the opinion that the respirator was not important. Only 13% of the respondents that use personal protective equipment (PPE) always use them and the main reason for not using PPE is forgetfulness (38%). Proper hygiene and sanitation was poorly practiced, as all respondents indiscriminately disposed of waste wood (100%) and about one third (33%) did not have a bath after work each day. Conclusion: Timber workers in our environment are faced with increased risks of diseases, accidents and challenges of protection and safety. As a consequence, there is a need for proper education and enforcement of consistent use of the different protective devices.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Food Hygiene among Food Vendors in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Anthony C. Iwu, Kenechi A. Uwakwe, Chukwuma B. Duru, Kevin C. Diwe, Henry N. Chineke, Irene A. Merenu, Uche R. Oluoha, Ugochukwu C. Madubueze, Emmanuel Ndukwu, Ikechi Ohale
Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine (ODEM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/odem.2017.51002
Abstract: Background: Food vendors play a critical food safety role in the “farm to plate” continuum that is necessary for the prevention and control of food borne diseases and therefore, any lack of its understanding by the food vendors poses a serious challenge to food safety. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and hygienic practices of food vendors in Owerri town of Imo State, Nigeria. Methods: The study was a Cross-Sectional descriptive design that used a proportionate convenience sampling technique to select 200 food vendors from the three Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Owerri town. Data were collected using a pretested semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were done with frequencies and summary statistics. Chi square statistics were computed to determine significant relationships and p value was set at 0.05 significant level. Results: While a majority of the respondents had a good level of knowledge (81%) and positive attitude (71%) about food hygiene, only 37% of the respondents had a good level of hygienic practice. It was revealed that 32% and 46% of the respondents received training on food hygiene and environmental health worker inspection respectively. It was also revealed that, there were statistically significant relationships between knowledge (p = 0.001), attitude (p = 0.000), formal training on food hygiene (p = 0.000) and the level of food hygienic practices. Conclusion: The public health management of food vending services should involve the development of strategies that will equip them with the necessary knowledge and skills to provide vending services in a hygienic and safe manner.
Health Care Seeking Behaviour and Predictors of Combined Orthodox and Traditional Health Care Utilization among Households in Communities in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Chukwuma B. Duru, Anthony C. Iwu, Kenechi A. Uwakwe, Kevin C. Diwe, Irene A. Merenu, Chukwuma U. Okafor, Chukwuyem Abejegah, Ugochukwu C. Madubueze, Emmanuel U. Ndukwu, Ikechi Ohale
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2017.77010
Abstract: Background: Health care seeking behaviour is a complex, dynamic and multidimensional process that involves a sequence of remedial actions that are influenced by the interaction between the individual, household and community with the intention of addressing perceived ill health. Objective: To determine health care seeking attitude and behaviour and the predictors of combined orthodox and traditional health care use among households in communities in Owerri, Imo State. Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional design that used a multistage random sampling technique to select 500 participants from households in two communities in Owerri, Imo State. Data was collected using a pretested, semi structured questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were done with frequencies and summary statistics. Chi square statistics were computed to determine significant relationships and binary logistic regression was used to determine predictors of combined use. P was set at 0.05 significance level. Results: The results revealed that, while just more than half of the respondents (56.4%) had a moderate to good level of overall knowledge of health care, almost all of the respondents (96.2%) also had a moderate to good level of overall positive attitude towards seeking health care; with less than one third (29.4%) using combined orthodox and traditional health care treatments. It further revealed that, respondents who were female, traders and from households of polygamous families were significantly more likely to use combined orthodox and traditional health care treatments (p < 0.05) while those with a tertiary level of education, from households with a professional as head, having private water closet toilets and earning a monthly income of more than 50,000 Naira ($140) were significantly less likely to use combined orthodox and traditional health care treatments (p < 0.05). Conclusion: There is a need to be more sensitive to the realities of the combined use of orthodox and traditional treatments, as its use will be difficult to prevent because this behaviour is rooted in the traditional and cultural belief system of our societies.
Assessment of Immunization Status, Coverage and Determinants among under 5-Year-Old Children in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Chukwuma B. Duru, Anthony C. Iwu, Kenechi A. Uwakwe, Kevin C. Diwe, Irene A. Merenu, Chima A. Emerole, Chioma A. Adaeze, Chinwe U. Onyekuru, Obinna Ihunnia
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102753
Abstract:
Background: Immunization coverage in different parts of the country varies widely despite efforts to improve the services. The immunization status of children is dependent on the dynamics of vaccination uptake which is complex and involves the interplay of different associated factors. Aim: To determine the immunization coverage, status and the determinants in under 5-year-old children in Owerri municipal, Imo State. Methods: The study was a community based cross-sectional study involving 420 women and 743 under 5-year-old children. A multistage sampling technique was employed and data were collected using a pretested, semi structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using a computer software SPSS-IBM version 20. Results: It revealed that 63.6% and 88.9% of children less than 12 months and between 12 - 59 months respectively according to households were fully immunized. The bivariate analysis showed statistically significant associations between the immunization status of the children and place of birth delivery (p < 0.0001), maternal age (p < 0.0001), level of maternal education (p < 0.01), level of maternal knowledge (p < 0.0001), religion (p < 0.05) and ethnicity (p < 0.01). Significant predictors of being fully immunized were; maternal age 25 - 29 years old (OR = 2.1), children aged 12 - 59 months (OR = 4.6), mother having tertiary education (OR = 5.4), being a Christian Catholic (OR = 12.5), hospital births (OR = 25.2) and good level of maternal knowledge (OR = 37.7). Conclusion: Immunization coverage is relatively high but not optimal among the studied population and thus there is a need to develop strategies aimed at achieving full immunization coverage as this is critical in the reduction of childhood morbidity and mortality.
Sexual Abuse among Female Undergraduates in Tertiary Institutions in IMO State, Southeast Nigeria: Prevalence, Pattern and Determinants  [PDF]
Chukwuma B. Duru, Chinyere M. Aguocha, Anthony C. Iwu, Uche R. Oluoha, Ijeoma N. Okedo-Alex, Ikechi Ohanle, Ernest Nwaigbo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104516
Abstract:
Introduction: Sexual abuse is a global public health problem that cuts across social class, cultures, tribes etc. and has permeated the fabrics of tertiary institutions and many work places as long as humans have reasons to interact. Aim: To determine the prevalence, pattern and determinants of sexual abuse among undergraduates in tertiary institutions in Imo State, Nigeria. Methodology: This study was a descriptive, cross sectional survey of 600 female students in tertiary institutions in Imo State Nigeria. They were selected using the multistage sampling technique and data were collected using a pretested, semi-structural and self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using a computer soft-ware (EPI INFO version 3.3.2). Descriptive statistics was presented using summary indices, frequency tables and percentages. Associations between variables were done using the chi-square and logistic regression. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 21.7 3.2 years. The current and life-time prevalence of sexual abuse among the respondents was 15.2% and 34% respectively and the commonest form of sexual abuse experienced was founding/grabbing of sensitive body parts (52.5%). Factors found to influence current occurrence of sexual abuse among the students were; age (p = 0.010), tribe (p = 0.008), marital status (p < 0.001), type of student in secondary school attended (p = 0.001), faculty of study (p = 0), year in school (p < 0.0001), persons currently shared room with (p < 0.0001) and level of knowledge about sexual abuse (p = 0.007). Conclusion: The prevalence of abuse as revealed in this study was high. There is need to develop appropriated prevention strategies by the universities to curb this menace against our women.
The Practice of Exclusive Breastfeeding and Its Sociodemographic Determinants amongst Nursing Mothers at a Tertiary Health Care Institution in South East, Nigeria  [PDF]
Henry N. Chineke, Anthony C. Iwu, Kevin C. Diwe, Chukwuma B. Duru, Kenechi A. Uwakwe, Eyitayo E. Emmanuel, Uche R. Oluoha, Ugochukwu C. Madubueze, Emmanuel U. Ndukwu, Ikechi Ohale
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2017.74006
Abstract: Background: Breastfeeding is a natural and critical act that provides nutrients and energy for the infant and young child; and through a public health intervention such as exclusive breastfeeding, it improves the survival rates of the infant. Objective: To determine the breastfeeding practices and the sociodemographic determinants of exclusive breastfeeding amongst nursing mothers present at the Imo state university teaching hospital Orlu. Methods: A cross sectional analytical study design was used that included all nursing mothers present within a 4 week study period. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were done with frequencies and summary statistics. Chi square statistics were computed to determine significant associations and binary logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic predictors of exclusive breastfeeding practice. P value was set at 0.05 significant level. Results: While most of the respondents were aware of exclusive breastfeeding (92.5%), only 24% of the respondents were practicing exclusive breastfeeding. Work and school activities, and the feeling that breast milk was insufficient for the needs of the baby were the reasons for not practicing exclusive breastfeeding for a majority of the respondents (56.6%). Furthermore, 61% of those that were practicing non-exclusive breast feeding gave a cereal or infant formula in addition to the breast milk for 3 to 6 months. It was further revealed that there were statistically significant relationships between breastfeeding practice and maternal age (p = 0.003), level of maternal education (p = 0.005) and maternal occupation (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Understanding and taking into cognizance the sociodemographic characteristics will enable the design, and adequate delivery of appropriate and effective strategies that improve exclusive breastfeeding practice.
Environmental Sanitation Practices: A Case Study of Solid Waste Management in Semi-Urban Communities in Orlu, Imo State Nigeria  [PDF]
Chukwuma B. Duru, Anthony C. Iwu, Kevin C. Diwe, Kenechi A. Uwakwe, Irene A. Merenu, Ugochukwu C Madubueze, Ijeoma N. Okedo-Alex, Emmanuel U. Ndukwu, Ikechi Ohale, Ernest Nwaigbo
Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine (ODEM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/odem.2017.54009
Abstract: Background: Environmental sanitation is a fundamental process that is a key public health intervention which is essential for social, economic and overall health development of communities. Objective: To determine Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Environmental Sanitation in Semi-Urban Communities in Orlu, Imo State, Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive design using a multistage random sampling technique to select 426 participants from households and business premises in semi-urban communities in Orlu Local Government Area of Imo State. Data was collected using a pretested, semi structured, interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were done with frequencies and summary statistics to assess the respondents’ knowledge, attitude and practices of environmental sanitation. Results: The results revealed that the mean age of the respondents’ was 37.0 ± 2.2 with a male to female ratio of 1:1.2. Despite high awareness about environmental sanitation (95.0%) reported among the respondents, proportion of them with good knowledge about environmental sanitation (22.9%), attitude (38.6%) and practice (20.8%) towards environmental sanitation was low. The mean quantity of waste generated per week per household or business premise was 14.1 ± 0.94 kg with a majority of the respondents (80.0%), not separating their waste before disposal. The commonest solid waste component generated was organic/perishable materials (74.8%) and the commonest disposal practice reported was open dumping (49.8%). Conclusion: A lot of attention is still required in the development of basic sanitation infrastructure and also, in the promotion of strategies or interventions that influence behavioural change towards environmental sanitation especially in developing countries like Nigeria.
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