Although the distribution of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has a wide regional variation, it is more common in Africa and Asia with high prevalence approaching 100% in some communities. CMV is a frequent opportunistic infection and major cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV patients with severe immunosuppression. It can be contracted from body fluid, including saliva, urine, blood, cervical secretions, and semen. CMV seropositivity is considered the best laboratory measure of past infection. We determined the prevalence of CMV and the risk factors associated with its acquisition in a population of HIV positive patients. Anti-CMV IgG seroprevalence was 100% among HIV infected subjects and 98.6% among controls. Having multiple sexual partners and traditional practices were identified as risk factors associated with risk of contracting CMV infection.