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Proximate Composition and Phytochemical Screenings of Crotalaria retusa Leaves and Seeds  [PDF]
J. A. Alalade, J. A. Akinlade, A. A. Akingbade, C. B. Emiola, I. A. Adebisi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105058
Abstract:
The leaves and seeds of Crotalaria retusa were evaluated for the proximate, mineral and anti-nutritional contents in a completely randomized design. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used in determination of the seeds and leaves for phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. Anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) including tannin, oxalate and phytate were also determined using appropriate technique. The result of proximate analysis indicated that leaves and seeds had high crude protein (18.00% and 14.63%), dry matter (94.78% and 90.98%), Ash (7.00% and 8.02%), crude fiber for both leaves (12.75%) and seed (28.44%) and the ether extract was (4.60%) and (5.03%) for leaves and seeds respectively. Mineral analysis indicated the Crotalaria retusa leave and seeds contained some essential mineral such as %P (0.37%) leave and (0.47%) seeds, %K (0.97%, 0.68%), %Mg (0.48%, 0.64%), %Ca (0.58%, 0.78%) and Fe (76.10 mg/kg) for leaves and (70.10 mg/kg) seeds of Crotalaria retusa. The leaves and seeds of Crotalaria retusa had low concentration of anti-nutrient factors; phytate (0.01%) leave and (0.06%) seed, oxalate (0.07%) leave and (0.09%) seed, tannin contents were (0.02%) and (0.05%) for leaves and seeds respectively. The overall results suggested that Crotalaria retusa leaves and seeds were of high nutritionally quality due to high protein and mineral contents with low presence of anti-nutritional factors.
Nutritional evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) in feeds for weaner pigs
IA Emiola, RM Gous
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2011,
Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to determine whether faba bean could successfully be used in feeds for weaner pigs in the period 10 to 25 kg liveweight. An experiment was conducted using 48 weaner pigs (average weight 10 ± 0.42 kg) to determine the nutritive value of dehulled faba bean meal (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) in comparison with full-fat soy. Two basal feeds were formulated, the first containing no faba bean but with full-fat soy (FFS) as the protein source, while the second contained 300 g faba bean/kg feed (FB). These feeds were blended to produce a series of five feeds (T1 to T5) containing a range of faba bean contents. In addition, a choice feeding treatment was included in the experiment to determine whether pigs showed preferences for or against faba bean. The experimental feeds were: 1) 1.0 FFS; 2) 0.75 FFS + 0.25 FB; 3) 0.5 FFS + 0.5 FB; 4) 0.25 FFS + 0.75FB; 5) 1.0 FB and 6) choice between FFS and FB. Feeds were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1998) nutrient requirements of weaner pigs. Diluting full-fat soya with dehulled faba bean meal had no effect on growth rate (ADG), feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion efficiency (FCE) or time taken to attain final weight. Male pigs had a numerically higher ADFI (1150 vs. 992 g/d) and ADG (553 vs. 539 g/d) than females, and reached the final liveweight on average 3 d before the females. When given a choice between the two basal feeds, no preference was shown for either feed. It may be concluded that a feed for weaner pigs may contain as much as 300 g dehulled faba bean/kg without causing any deleterious effects on performance as long as the quality of the faba beans is the same as that used in this trial.
Processed African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) in Broiler Feeding: Performance Characteristics and Nutrient Utilization
Emiola, I. A.
Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries , 2011,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding raw and processed African yam bean (AYB) Sphenostylis stenocarpa on the performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens. The experiment utilized one hundred and twenty one day old Abor-Acre broiler chicks in 56-days intensive feeding trial. Four dietary treatments comprising a basal maize-soybean meal diet and three differently processed AYB meals were used to replace soybean at 50% protein for protein in the basal diet (raw, aqueous heating and dehulled AYB). There were four 4 treatments groups of 3 replicates with 10 birds per replicate. Birds were randomly divided into four groups in a completely randomized block design. It was revealed that a 50% protein for protein replacement of SBM with cooked AYB was equally as good as feeding SBM as protein source in diet of broiler chicks. Hence, Aqueous heating was a better processing method for African yam bean compared to dehulling or better still dehulling prior to aqueous heating to enable adequate removal of the anti-nutritional factors to the barest minimum.
A survey of Sub-Saharan African medical schools
Candice Chen, Eric Buch, Travis Wassermann, Seble Frehywot, Fitzhugh Mullan, Francis Omaswa, S Greysen, Joseph C Kolars, Delanyo Dovlo, Diaa El Gali Abu Bakr, Abraham Haileamlak, Abdel Koumare, Emiola Olapade-Olaopa
Human Resources for Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-10-4
Abstract: The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable.Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate). An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64) increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68). The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of graduates, and improving quality, related to infrastructure and faculty limitations, respectively. Significant correlations were seen between schools implementing increased faculty salaries and bonuses, and lower percentage loss of faculty over the previous five years (P = 0.018); strengthened institutional research tools (P = 0.00015) and funded faculty research time (P = 0.045) and greater faculty involvement in research; and country compulsory service requirements (P = 0.039), a moderate number (1-5) of post-graduate medical education programs (P = 0.016) and francophone schools (P = 0.016) and greater rural general practice after graduation.The results of the SAMSS survey increases the level of data and understanding of m
Nutritional Assessment of Raw and Differently Processed Underutilized Legume Seed in Broiler Diet
Emiola I.A.,A.D.Ologhobo
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of raw and differently processed (cooked, dehulled and toasted) kidney bean meal on the performance of broiler chicken. Histological examinations of internal organs were also conducted in a feeding trial that lasted for 56 days. Two hundred and twenty five day old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were used for the study. There were five treatment groups of three replicates of 15 birds per treatment. Raw and processed kidney bean meal was used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean in the control diet. Data collected was used to evaluate feed intake, weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization. The weights of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart and lungs were also recorded and tissue samples of each collected for histological examination. Food intake was unaffected by the dietary treatments. Significant (p<0.05) differences were obtained in Average Daily Gain (ADG) and efficiency of feed utilization (FCE). ADG in birds fed cooked kidney bean was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed toasted. ADG was depressed in birds fed raw and dehulled meals. Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) followed the same trend as ADG. The relative weight of the pancreas was significantly (p<0.05) increased, as a result of acinar hypertrophy. The kidney had severe congestion of glomeruli and distention of the capillary vessels with numerous thrombi in birds fed soaked and decorticated kidney bean meals. The weight of the liver was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in birds fed soaked and decorticated beans and it was characterized by marked coagulative necrosis and degeneration of the hepatocytes. The structural alterations were attributed to high concentration of residual anti-nutritional factors in the processed seeds. In conclusion, cooked kidney bean meal can be used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean meal in broiler starter and finisher diets without any adverse effect on the performance and the intestinal organs.
Mathematical Platonism and the Nature of Infinity  [PDF]
Gilbert B. C?té
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.33056
Abstract: An analysis of the counter-intuitive properties of infinity as understood differently in mathematics, classical physics and quantum physics allows the consideration of various paradoxes under a new light (e.g. Zeno’s dichotomy, Torricelli’s trumpet, and the weirdness of quantum physics). It provides strong support for the reality of abstractness and mathematical Platonism, and a plausible reason why there is something rather than nothing in the concrete universe. The conclusions are far reaching for science and philosophy.
Triple-Aspect Monism and the Ontology of Quantum Particles  [PDF]
Gilbert B. C?té
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.34066
Abstract: An analysis of the physical implications of abstractness reveals the reality of three interconnected modes of existence: abstract, virtual and concrete. This triple-aspect monism clarifies the ontological status of subatomic quantum particles. It also provides a non-spooky solution to the weirdness of quantum physics and a new outlook for the mind-body problem. The ontological implications are profound for both physics and philosophy.
Synthesis and Characterization of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Anionic Surfactant Doped Nanosize Polyaniline  [PDF]
B. Mahalakshmi, C. Vedhi
Open Journal of Synthesis Theory and Applications (OJSTA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojsta.2014.34008
Abstract: Surfactant doped polyaniline was synthesized in the aqueous solution of aniline and anionic surfactant of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFO) by chemical synthesis using potassium peroxy disulphate as an oxidant by varying the aniline to surfactant ratio. The solubility of the chemically prepared surfactant doped polyaniline (PANI) was ascertained and it showed good solubility in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethylformamide (DMF), acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol, aceticacid, trichloroethylene, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, ethylacetate, diethylether, toluene, chloroform and sparingly soluble in n-hexane and water. The prepared polymers were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetric (CV), EIS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis of UV-visible and FTIR showed that aniline has been polymerized to PANI in its conducting emeraldine form. FTIR spectra showed that the peaks at 1670, 3315 and 1400 cm-1 corresponded to PFO. FTIR spectra showed that amine peak observed at 1593 cm-1 was shifted to lower wave number due to the interaction between PANI and the surfactant. SEM analysis showed that the variation in morphology of doped PANI was predominantly dependent on the concentration of the surfactant. Elemental analysis was done by energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDAX) which shows the presence of C, N, O, S and F. XRD pattern showed that the formation of nanosized (18 nm) and crystalline polymer. CV studies of the synthesized polymer exhibited good adherent behavior on electrode surface. It exhibited three oxidation peaks at approximately 0.283 V, 0.541 V and 0.989 V and two reduction peaks at 0.1421 and 0.3854 V. Electrical conductivity of PFO doped PANI was studied by impedance spectroscopic method.
Utilisation of Some Raw Tropical Legume Seeds in Diets of Exotic Adult Cockerels
A.M. Akanji,A.D. Ologhobo,I.A. Emiola
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of raw jack beans, bambara groundnut and benne seeds on performance characteristics, serum metabolites and weights of organs of exotic adult cockerels. Each of the raw legumes replaced full fat soybean meal at 25 and 50% levels, respectively. The experiment ran for 8 weeks. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency of birds fed with 25% and 50% raw jack beans, raw bambara groundnuts and raw benne seeds were significantly (p< 0.05) reduced, respectively. However, the reductions were marked in birds fed 50% raw jack beans. Significant (p< 0.05) correlations were obtained between feed intake and haemagglutinin (r = -0.68), trypsin inhibitor (r = - 0.58); Weight gain and haemagglutinin (r = - 0.76) , trypsin inhibitor (r = -0.83). Mortality was higher in birds fed 50% raw jack beans. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly (p< 0.05) elevated in birds fed raw benne seed-based diets, but reduced (p< 0.05) in those fed 25 and 50% raw jack beans and bambara groundnuts, respectively. Weights of livers and testes were significantly (p< 0.05) reduced in birds fed raw jack beans, raw bambara groundnuts and raw benne seeds, respectively. Pancreatic enlargement was however observed only in birds fed raw jack beans and bambara groundnuts, respectively.
Daycase urology at Ibadan, Nigeria: a ten year review
Augustine Oghenewyin Takure,Olayiwola Babatunde Shittu,Linus Ikechukwu Okeke,Oluwabunmi Emiola Olapade-Olaopa
Pan African Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to report the extent of urological surgeries performed as day cases in a major tertiary hospital in Ibadan and document the outcome.
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