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OALib Journal期刊

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Influence of Agro Ecology on Rice Varietal Resistance to Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Benin  [PDF]
Carline Santos, Clement Agbangla, Daniel Chougourou, Antoine Abel Missihoun, Corneille Ahanhanzo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.618280
Abstract: The rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.), are serious pests of stored rice in Africa. This study aims to evaluate the influence of growing environments to rice resistance to these pests. Thus, eleven rice varieties including 6 upland NERICA, 2 Oryza glaberrima and 3 O. sativa were grown at four agro ecological zones of Benin. After harvest, samples of 1500 grains of each genotype were infested with 20 adults of S. oryzae (10 males and 10 females) and 1500 additional ones were infested with 50 eggs of S. cerealella. Results showed significant effect of agro ecological zones on pest incidence and on varietal resistance as well. O. glaberrima varieties (TOG 5681 and CG 14) were the most resistant in each location whereas the resistance of NERICA and Sativa varieties varied from tolerant to susceptible according to the growing ecology. This result highlights the impact of growing environment on rice resistance status and will provide the best advice to farmers on how to choose best genetic material according to cropping ecology.
Ethics and Vulnerability in Street Prostitution; An Argument in Favour of Managed Zones
Anna Carline
Crimes and Misdemeanours : Deviance and the Law in Historical Perspective , 2009,
Abstract: This article draws upon the work of Judith Butler, in particular her approach to ethics and the concepts of vulnerability and liveable lives, in order to provide a critical analysis of reform proposals contained in the Criminal Justice and Immigration Bill (now Act 2008) in relation to street prostitution. The article will argue that the proposals presented in the Bill problematically use the vulnerability of street sex workers in order to promote a moralistic agenda. In contrast it will be argued that managed zones, as proposed by Liverpool City Council, provide a potentially more ethical approach to the issue of street prostitution.
Submergence Tolerance in Irrigated and Rainfed Lowland Rice Varieties: Agro-Morphological Basis for Rice Genetic Improvement in Southern Benin  [PDF]
Magloire Oteyami, Espérance Codjia, Clement Agbangla, Leonard Ahoton, Carline Santos, David Montcho, Antoine Missihoun
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104304
Abstract:
Objective: The study was carried out, on the rice perimeter of Southern Benin, to evaluate the response of irrigated and lowland rice varieties to the complete and partial submergence using agro-morphological traits. Method: Thus, 15 rice varieties were submerged in the field during 60 days according to split plot experimental design with two factors and three replications. Agro-morphological parameters such as plant height, number of tillers, the distance of internodes and the number of internodes were measured respectively at 13 days and 45 days. After harvest, some traits such as length, width and thickness of grains, panicle length, number of primary and secondary branches, the average number of empty grains and full grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight were recorded. Results: Very highly significant (P ≤ 0.0001) differences were identified between agro morphological parameters according to the type of submergence while the factor type of immersion has significant influence on the number of internodes at 45 days after transplanting (P ≤ 0.01). The submergence was not significant effect on tillering and length of internodes. Conclusion: The plant height, the weight of thousand grains and the average number of empty grains per panicle constitute key aspects and have been essential for evaluating tolerance to submergence in Benin.
Prosodic Cues to Word Order: What Level of Representation?
Carline Bernard,Judit Gervain
Frontiers in Psychology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00451
Abstract: Within language, systematic correlations exist between syntactic structure and prosody. Prosodic prominence, for instance, falls on the complement and not the head of syntactic phrases, and its realization depends on the phrasal position of the prominent element. Thus, in Japanese, a functor-final language, prominence is phrase-initial, and realized as increased pitch (^ Tōkyō ni “Tokyo to”), whereas in French, English, or Italian, functor-initial languages, it manifests itself as phrase-final lengthening (to Rome). Prosody is readily available in the linguistic signal even to the youngest infants. It has, therefore, been proposed that young learners might be able to exploit its correlations with syntax to bootstrap language structure. In this study, we tested this hypothesis, investigating how 8-month-old monolingual French infants processed an artificial grammar manipulating the relative position of prosodic prominence and word frequency. In Condition 1, we created a speech stream in which the two cues, prosody and frequency, were aligned, frequent words being prosodically non-prominent and infrequent ones being prominent, as is the case in natural language (functors are prosodically minimal compared to content words). In Condition 2, the two cues were misaligned, with frequent words carrying prosodic prominence, unlike in natural language. After familiarization with the aligned or the misaligned stream in a headturn preference procedure, we tested infants’ preference for test items having a frequent word initial or a frequent word final word order. We found that infants’ familiarized with the aligned stream showed the expected preference for the frequent word initial test items, mimicking the functor-initial word order of French. Infants in the misaligned condition showed no preference. These results suggest that infants are able to use word frequency and prosody as early cues to word order and they integrate them into a coherent representation.
The Effects of Influenza Vaccination of Health Care Workers in Nursing Homes: Insights from a Mathematical Model
Carline van den Dool ,Marc J. M Bonten,Eelko Hak,Janneke C. M Heijne,Jacco Wallinga
PLOS Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050200
Abstract: Background Annual influenza vaccination of institutional health care workers (HCWs) is advised in most Western countries, but adherence to this recommendation is generally low. Although protective effects of this intervention for nursing home patients have been demonstrated in some clinical trials, the exact relationship between increased vaccine uptake among HCWs and protection of patients remains unknown owing to variations between study designs, settings, intensity of influenza seasons, and failure to control all effect modifiers. Therefore, we use a mathematical model to estimate the effects of HCW vaccination in different scenarios and to identify a herd immunity threshold in a nursing home department. Methods and Findings We use a stochastic individual-based model with discrete time intervals to simulate influenza virus transmission in a 30-bed long-term care nursing home department. We simulate different levels of HCW vaccine uptake and study the effect on influenza virus attack rates among patients for different institutional and seasonal scenarios. Our model reveals a robust linear relationship between the number of HCWs vaccinated and the expected number of influenza virus infections among patients. In a realistic scenario, approximately 60% of influenza virus infections among patients can be prevented when the HCW vaccination rate increases from 0 to 1. A threshold for herd immunity is not detected. Due to stochastic variations, the differences in patient attack rates between departments are high and large outbreaks can occur for every level of HCW vaccine uptake. Conclusions The absence of herd immunity in nursing homes implies that vaccination of every additional HCW protects an additional fraction of patients. Because of large stochastic variations, results of small-sized clinical trials on the effects of HCW vaccination should be interpreted with great care. Moreover, the large variations in attack rates should be taken into account when designing future studies.
Deposi??o de serapilheira em povoamento de Pinus
Piovesan, Gabriel;Schumacher, Mauro Valdir;Viera, Márcio;Lopes, Vicente Guilherme;Welter, Carline;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1983-40632012000200012
Abstract: litterfall is the main responsible for maintaining forest stands yield in soils with low natural fertility. this study aimed to evaluate seasonal and monthly litterfall deposition in a pinus taeda l. stand, in quedas do igua?u, paraná state , brazil. three plots with 21.0 m x 20.0 m were randomly allocated, where four collectors of 1.0 m2 each were systematically distributed. the litterfall was monthly collected, between april 2007 and march 2009, respectively at eight and nine years after the stand plantation, and divided in needles, thin branches (diameter < 0.5 cm), and miscellaneous, being subsequently determined its dry mass. the litterfall annual deposition reached 7.1 mg ha-1, being higher in the autumn. the average maximum temperature and average air temperature had inverse and significant influence on needles deposition and total litterfall.
Effects of a teaching evaluation system: a case study
Shi-Hao Wen,Jing-Song Xu,Jan D. Carline,Fei Zhong
International Journal of Medical Education , 2011, DOI: 10.5116/ijme.4d66.910e
Abstract: Objectives: This study aims to identify the effects of evaluation on teaching and discusses improvements in the work of the evaluation office. Methods: Teaching evaluation data from 2006 to 2009 was collected and analyzed. Additional surveys were conducted to collect the perceptions of students, faculty members, peer reviewers, deans and chairs about teaching evaluation. Results: Evaluation scores for more than half of faculty members increased, significantly more for junior compared with senior faculty, over the period of the study. Student attendance and satisfaction with elective courses increased after interventions identified by teaching evaluations. All participants believed that teaching evaluation had positive effects on teaching quality and classroom behavior. Seventy-three percent of faculty believed the evaluation helped to improve their teaching skills. Faculty perceptions of the helpfulness of teaching evaluation were related to the speed in which evaluations were reported, the quality of comments received, and the attitudes held by faculty towards evaluation. All the faculty members, chairs and deans read evaluation reports, and most of them believed the reports were helpful. Conclusions: Teaching evaluation at SMMU was perceived to improve both the teaching quality and classroom behavior. Faster feedback and higher quality comments are perceived to provide more help to faculty members.
Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana in vitro de extratos de caqui (Diospyros kaki L.) cultivar Rama Forte
Milani, Liana Inês Guidolin;Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento;Fries, Leadir Lucy Martins;Cichoski, Alexandre José;Rezer, Ana Paula de Souza;Backes, ?ngela Maria;Parodia, Carline Gass;
Brazilian Journal of Food Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1981-67232012005000003
Abstract: the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of various phenolic compounds and plant extracts have been evaluated in many experiments. the aim of this study was to obtain a crude hydroethanolic extract of persimmon (diospyros kaki l.) cv. rama forte and fraction it using solvents with different polarities. subsequently the total phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were determined in the crude hydroethanolic extract of persimmon, as well as in the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and residual fractions obtained from it. the total phenolic compounds were determined by the folin-ciocalteau method, the antioxidant activity by the free radical scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph) method, and the antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion method. the phenolic compound contents of the crude hydroethanolic extract of persimmon cv. rama forte, the residual aqueous fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, hexane fraction and chloroform fraction were, respectively, 1277.94, 1231.23, 37.24, 17.60 and 11.48 mg gae.100 ml-1. the crude hydroethanolic extract of persimmon cv. rama forte and the residual fraction showed the highest contents of phenolic compounds and highest anti-radical activities against dpph, as compared to the other fractions tested, with ic50 values of 0.2467 and 0.2567 mg.ml-1, respectively. the persimmon extract and fractions showed no in vitro antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested. the results showed that the crude hydroethanolic extract of persimmon cv. rama forte and the residual fraction contained sufficient amounts of phenolic compounds to contribute positively to the antioxidant activity.
Adaptive Behaviour on the Portuguese Curricula: A Comparison between Children and Adolescents with and without Intellectual Disability  [PDF]
Sofia Santos
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.57059
Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to assess and compare the adaptive behaviour level of children and adolescents with and without intellectual disability trying to understand how the differences in this area could be influenced by contents and curricula. The sample was composed by 589 children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities (both ages 6 to 16, randomly selected from special and regular schools, respectively). The Portuguese version of Adaptive Behaviour Scale was used and administered through an interview, to a proxy who knew the individual being evaluated. Controlling for age, gender, diagnosis, and living area we found that there were statistical significant differences between both groups on most of adaptive behaviour domains in all variables. One of the conclusions is that curricula in special and regular schools differ a lot on contents and in participation activities within the community and that might be one of the causes of the non-skills acquisition by the children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

Review: The Molecular Basis of Resistance in Mycobaterium tuberculosis  [PDF]
Lorena Cristina Santos
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2012.21004
Abstract: Tuberculosis is a serious global public health problem and its high prevalence is strongly associated with the increase of drug resistance. This steady increase in the frequency of M. tuberculosis strains resistant to one or more agents commonly used to treat tuberculosis has drawn worldwide attention to understanding the molecular basis of resistance in M. tuberculosis. TB resistance is a great concern in the antibiotic resistance pandemic due to the high risk of death, as patients can remain infected for months or years and also because of the difficulty of the treatment. A molecular understanding of the series of events that render M. tuberculosis multi-drug resistant is very important in order to find a fast and appropriated diagnosis as well as a new target for new drugs.
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