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Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa
Muideen O Bakare, Vincent N Ubochi, Ifeoma N Okoroikpa, Chinyere M Aguocha, Peter O Ebigbo
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-5-39
Abstract: (ICD - 10) criteria for mental retardation and caregivers judgment based on 'ratio IQ' scores calculated from estimated mental age in the context of socio-cultural milieu of the children. It proposed a viable option of IQ score assessment among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, using a ratio of culture-specific estimated mental age and chronological age of the child in the absence of standardized alternatives, borne out of great diversity in socio-cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa.Clinicians and care-givers independently assessed the children in relation to their socio-cultural background. Clinicians assessed the IQ scores of the children based on the ICD - 10 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation. 'Ratio IQ' scores were calculated from the ratio of estimated mental age and chronological age of each child. The IQ scores as assessed by the clinicians were then compared with the 'ratio IQ' scores using correlation statistics.A total of forty-four (44) children with intellectual disability were assessed. There was a significant correlation between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and the 'ratio IQ' scores employing zero order correlation without controlling for the chronological age of the children (r = 0.47, df = 42, p = 0.001). First order correlation controlling for the chronological age of the children showed higher correlation score between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and 'ratio IQ' scores (r = 0.75, df = 41, p = 0.000).Agreement between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and 'ratio IQ' scores was good. 'Ratio IQ' test would provide a viable option of assessing IQ scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability in the absence of culture-appropriate standardized intelligence scales, which is often the case because of great diversity in socio-cultural structures of sub-Saharan Africa.One of the earliest objectives of developing scales to assess intelligence among children was to determine those children that would
Sexual Abuse among Female Undergraduates in Tertiary Institutions in IMO State, Southeast Nigeria: Prevalence, Pattern and Determinants  [PDF]
Chukwuma B. Duru, Chinyere M. Aguocha, Anthony C. Iwu, Uche R. Oluoha, Ijeoma N. Okedo-Alex, Ikechi Ohanle, Ernest Nwaigbo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104516
Abstract:
Introduction: Sexual abuse is a global public health problem that cuts across social class, cultures, tribes etc. and has permeated the fabrics of tertiary institutions and many work places as long as humans have reasons to interact. Aim: To determine the prevalence, pattern and determinants of sexual abuse among undergraduates in tertiary institutions in Imo State, Nigeria. Methodology: This study was a descriptive, cross sectional survey of 600 female students in tertiary institutions in Imo State Nigeria. They were selected using the multistage sampling technique and data were collected using a pretested, semi-structural and self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using a computer soft-ware (EPI INFO version 3.3.2). Descriptive statistics was presented using summary indices, frequency tables and percentages. Associations between variables were done using the chi-square and logistic regression. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 21.7 3.2 years. The current and life-time prevalence of sexual abuse among the respondents was 15.2% and 34% respectively and the commonest form of sexual abuse experienced was founding/grabbing of sensitive body parts (52.5%). Factors found to influence current occurrence of sexual abuse among the students were; age (p = 0.010), tribe (p = 0.008), marital status (p < 0.001), type of student in secondary school attended (p = 0.001), faculty of study (p = 0), year in school (p < 0.0001), persons currently shared room with (p < 0.0001) and level of knowledge about sexual abuse (p = 0.007). Conclusion: The prevalence of abuse as revealed in this study was high. There is need to develop appropriated prevention strategies by the universities to curb this menace against our women.
Knowledge about childhood autism and opinion among healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders in Nigeria
Muideen O Bakare, Peter O Ebigbo, Ahamefule O Agomoh, Julian Eaton, Gabriel M Onyeama, Kevin O Okonkwo, Jojo U Onwukwe, Monday N Igwe, Andrew O Orovwigho, Chinyere M Aguocha
BMC Pediatrics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-9-12
Abstract: A total of one hundred and thirty four (134) consented healthcare workers working in tertiary healthcare facilities located in south east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with Socio-demographic, Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW) and Opinion on availability of Facilities and Law caring for the needs and rights of children with Childhood Autism and other developmental disorders (OFLCA) questionnaires.The total mean score of participated healthcare workers on KCAHW questionnaire was 12.35 ± 4.40 out of a total score of 19 possible. Knowledge gap was found to be higher in domain 3 (symptoms of obsessive and repetitive pattern of behavior), followed by domains 1 (symptoms of impairments in social interaction), 4 (type of disorder autism is and associated co-morbidity) and 2 (symptoms of communication impairments) of KCAHW respectively among the healthcare workers. Knowledge about childhood autism (KCA) as measured by scores on KCAHW questionnaire was significantly associated with age group distribution of the healthcare workers, with those age group of fourth decades and above more likely to have higher mean score (p = 0.004) and previous experience of managing children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (p = 0.000). KCA showed near significant association with area of specialty, with those healthcare workers in psychiatry compared to pediatrics having higher mean score (p = 0.071) and also with years of working experience of the healthcare workers (p = 0.056). More than half of the healthcare workers subscribed to the opinion that facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders are lacking in Nigeria.The correlates of KCA may help in selection of those tertiary healthcare workers that would best fit the role of trainers. It is important to update the knowledge gaps of those healthcare workers who scored low in different domains of KCAHW questionnaire.
Child maltreatment, abuse and neglect in a Nigerian adolescent boy, the common but unheard menace: A case report form Southwest, Nigeria  [PDF]
Chinyere C. Uzodimma, Morufat M. Ogundeyi, Florence I. Dedeke, Olasunkanmi Owolabi
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.34068
Abstract:

Child abuse is a global problem. It includes all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that result in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, development or dignity. Child abuse and neglect are common in Nigeria, yet poorly reported. We herein report a case of child abuse and neglect in a 14-year-old boy, complicated by severe malnutrition, human immunodeficiency virus infection and gross under achievement of educational goal. The social and economic factors that play major roles are highlighted with the aim of sensitizing health care professionals, child advocacy groups, policy makers and other stakeholders on the impact of child abuse. We also hope that this would remind all concerned organisations and individuals of child protection which is integrated in the child right act 2003 adopted by Nigeria.

Gender, Space and Power in the Indigenous Igbo Socio-political Organization
Chinyere Ukpokolo
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/pjssci.2010.177.186
Abstract: This study examines the indigenous Igbo society with the purpose of identifying the complexities of gender relations in the socio-political space. It locates men and women s positions in the socio-political organization and identifies how power is implicated in the interrelationships that exist. The study argues that power is complex, elusive and hence noted the varied forms its possession and enforcement may assume in Igbo socio-political space. Hence, power is not concentrated on an individual or group but diffused within the body polity. Space conceptualized both spatially and as a process, represents the venue and means of negotiating and accessing power, respectively for men and women. The study, therefore is a contribution to the critique of the thesis of women invisibility that dominated earlier studies of the Igbo people and underscores what the researcher believes to be a factual representation of men and women in the socio-political maze. Finally, the study concludes that collaboration and gender mutuality characterize the indigenous Igbo society.
Fuel Subsidy Removal in Nigeria: Socio-Religious and Value Implications Drawn from the Theistic Humanism of Professor Dukor  [PDF]
Chinyere T. Nwaoga, K. C. Ani Casimir
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31A039
Abstract:

Nigeria is a country blessed with abundant human and material resources. Pre-independent Nigeria had agriculture as the major foreign exchange and revenue earner. Other alternative revenue earners such as agricultural and mineral resources were explored and their proceeds used to support and foot the bill of government expenditures. Immediately the first oil field was discovered in 1956 at Olobiri in the Niger Delta, other alternative sources of revenue for Nigeria were abandoned and crude oil became the determinant of Nigeria’s mono-economic status and the sole basis of all socio-economic transaction within and outside the country. The issue of appropriate pricing of petroleum products and the removal of government’s subsidy on petroleum price became a thorny controversial public policy issue. Successive governments, including the current President, have grappled with this problem of whether to remove the subsidy or not, without coming to a publicly endorsed solution to the debate. The last fuel subsidy removal on 1st January, 2012 sparked an uprising that almost led to a revolution. The thrust of the study is to examine the causes of the fuel subsidy removal, to identify the benefits of fuel subsidy removal, to describe the effects of the subsidy removal, and the socio-religious implications of the removal of fuel subsidy to the citizens of Nigeria. It is in the context of these socio-religious that one discovers the relevance of Professor Dukor theistic humanism and its implied need for African values to be applied to governance in the 21st century. The debate surrounding the subsidy removal and the subsidy scam running into trillions of Naira of stolen funds by independent marketers of petroleum products revolve around corruption and a bad commentary about how ethical African vales have been removed from public governance and the management of public resources. After pointing out these socio-religious implications for the Nigerian ethical and value re-orientation, the paper went ahead to recommend some ways of managing the subsidy money for the development of the country.

Precautionary Measures Necessary in Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Television Maintenance by Electronic Technicians  [PDF]
Ifeanyi Benedict Ohanu, Theresa Chinyere Ogbuanya
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.53021
Abstract:

The study was carried out to determine precautionary measures necessary in liquid crystal display (LCD) television maintenance by electronic technician. The population for the study was 3209 consisting of 11 electronic teachers and 3198 electronic technicians. 11 electronic teachers and 155 electronic technicians selected by simple random sampling were used for the study. Questionnaire consisting of 57 items was used to elicit responses from electronic teachers and electronic technicians regarding the two research questions. Data collected were analyzed using mean while t-test for independent sample was used to test the two null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Analysis revealed the important components of LCD television that may occasionally developed faults and important precautionary measures that should be taken in LCD television maintenance. It was concluded that electronic technicians should carry out maintenance of LCD televisions by observing the precautionary measures to be taken in maintenance of LCD televisions.

Managing Macular Holes in a Developing Economy  [PDF]
Bassey Fiebai, Chinyere N. Pedro-Egbe
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2015.53021
Abstract: Background: Macular holes are the common cause of visual impairment especially in the elderly and have a variety of etiological factors. The advances in the management of macular holes are encouraging and are now available in developing countries although scarce, where hitherto; patients seek attention outside their country. The need to understand this disease has therefore become pertinent in all retina clinics. Objective: To evaluate the pattern of presentation of macular holes and its management in a retina clinic in South South Nigeria. Methods: A 5 year retrospective, non comparative review of 24 consecutive cases presenting to a retinal clinic was carried out. Relevant information was extracted from the medical records and analyzed. Results: Three hundred and sixty four cases were seen between January 2009 and December 2013. Twenty four cases had macular holes and ten (41.7%) had bilateral presentation with a total of 34 eyes. The incidence of macular holes was 6.6%. The mean age was 46 years (SD ± 13.42) with a female preponderance, 5:1. Idiopathic holes formed the bulk of the cases 14(58.3%); others were trauma 4(16.7%), posterior uveitis 2, (8.3%), chemotherapy 2 (8.3%), Solar retinopathy and retinitis pigmentosa 1 (4.2%). Nineteen (55.9%) of the 34 eyes were visually impaired (BCVA <6/18). Nineteen eyes had full thickness holes (55.9%) requiring surgery, however only 3(12.5%) of these could afford to have surgery with one reoperation. Four patients (16.7%) had complications in form of retinal detachments at presentation. Conclusion: This study has shown that the incidence of macular holes in the developing world is significant and resources to manage these cases are grossly lacking. Specialist training, with government subsidizing costs will alleviate these difficulties and reduce visual loss from macular holes.
Nutritive Value of Lagenaria sphaerica Seed (Wild Bottle Gourds) from South-Eastern Nigeria
Chinyere G. Chinyere,Emmanuel,I. Akubugwo,Nwaukwa
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: The nutritive value of Lagenaria sphaerica (Wild Bottle Gourd) from South-Eastern Nigeria was studied. The results show that the nutritional value of this seed is similar to those of curcubitacae (Melon) seeds. Its moisture (7.92%), crude fibre (3.65%) and ash (2.68%) levels compare to those of peanuts, sesame and sunflower but its carbohydrate level is (14.22%) lower. The Lagenaria sphaerica seed is rich in protein (23.48%) and minerals (73.12%). It also contains high lipid levels (44.54%) similar to those of the other oilseeds. The fatty acid profile show linoleate (18.2) as the most abundant (62%). This seed can thus be considered as a rich source of proteins and oils.
Ezigbo Mmadu: An Anthropological Investigation Into The Concept Of A Good Person In Igbo Worldview
Dr. Chinyere Ukpokolo
Lumina , 2010,
Abstract:
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