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Impact of Eating Habits and Lifestyle on the Oral Health Status of a Casablanca’s Academic Population  [PDF]
Houriya Mestaghanmi, Ali Labriji, Imane M’Touguy, Fatima Zahra Kehailou, Said Idhammou, Nabil Kobb, Fatema Zahra Mahfoud, Ahmadaye Ibrahim Khalil, Souad El Amrani
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104967
Abstract:
Introduction: Bad eating habits can have serious impact on oral health. Objec-tives: To study the impact of eating habits and dental hygiene practices on the dental status of students. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 400 students aged 17 and more, from the Ben M’Sik Sciences Faculty. A questionnaire on the so-cio-economic level of the parents, the eating habits, the means of hygiene and the oral health status has been filled in anonymously by the respondents. Uni-variate and multivariate descriptive and comparative analyzes were per-formed by the software SPSS 21. Results: The population’s average age is 20 ± 1.59 years old consisted of 55% of boys and 45% of girls. The breakfast is consumed by 67% of students. 39.58% respondents consume sweetened drinks during the meals and 60% at the end of meals and 66% are snacking during the day. 92% of students say they brush their teeth. The brushing time varies between 1 and 3 minutes. 37% of students do never consult a dentist and 63% in case of dental problems. The prevalence of caries is 66%. There is a positive association between the prevalence of tooth decay and certain eating habits (sweet things consumption (p = 0.08), cakes (p = 0.018) and chocolate (p = 0.019) outside of meals). However, this correlation is negative, when the consumption of these foods is done during meals (p > 0.74). On the other hand, there was no correlation between alcohol consumption and presence of caries (p = 0.172), tobacco consumption (p = 0.319), and socioeconomic status parents (p = 0.733). Conclusion: Oral hygiene and regular monitoring by a dentist with healthy eating habits can have a significant impact on the oral status of students.
Composite Likelihood for Bilinear GARCH Model  [PDF]
Abdelhalim Bouchemella, Fatima Zahra Benmostefa
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.515225
Abstract:

In this study, we focus on the class of BL-GARCH models, which is initially introduced by Storti & Vitale [1] in order to handle leverage effects and volatility clustering. First we illustrate some properties of BL-GARCH (1, 2) model, like the positivity, stationarity and marginal distribution; then we study the statistical inference, apply the composite likelihood on panel of BL-GARCH (1, 2) model, and study the asymptotic behavior of the estimators, like the consistency property and the asymptotic normality.

GREEN IT- Why Developing Countries Should Care
Fatima Zahra Hanne
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2011,
Abstract: Regional and international environmental conferences such as Kyoto and Copenhagen show a growing interest in preserving the environment and addressing major ecological issues, namely climate change and biodiversity. Businesses nowadays are aware that sustainable development is crucial. Social and environmental aspects together with economic performance should be considered. The Information Technology (IT) field has recently embraced the principle of sustainability. Green Information Technology (Green-IT) is the term used for green practices aimed at reducing the impact the IT has on the environment. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to offer an understanding of Green-IT. Initially, I will give a theoretical definition of Green-IT as well as an explanation of ecological issues related to IT use, mainly energy consumption, use of toxic substances and e-waste management. I will then present a review of some important Green-IT actions in developed countries. The second objective consists of shedding light on the importance of Green-IT adoption for developing countries and giving an example of the practice of Green- IT in Morocco.
Geomorphosite Valorization a View to Sustainable Development: Case of Ait Hajji, Oued Boulahmayel Valley, Central Morocco  [PDF]
Nahraoui Fatima Zahra, El Wartiti Mohamed, Zahraoui Mohamed, Dabi Sanaa
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2011.31002
Abstract: The Pleistocene Fluvial-lacustrine of Ait Hajji Formation is located in South East of Tiddas, and in the Qua-ternary deposits of the Moroccan Central Plateau. These outcrops represent on a geomorphosite of great im-portance for the study of geological heritage, and for a natural eco-tourism valorization in Morocco. For to aim a natural tourism promotion, for indigenous peoples, this geomorphosite in question has an fluorescent and dense flora with a diversified fauna in the heart of one Ordovician quartzite bar and Devonian limestone ridges. In Oued Boulahmayel geomorphosite contains a memory geological Formation of a Pleistocene epi-sode, beginning firstly by a dynamic fluviatil land synchronous with a local volcanic activity (Phonolite ne-phelinc) replaced by a lake sedimentation related to the formation of a dam natural, created a few hundred meters downstream from Boulahmayel. For valorizing of the hinterland of the plains towns, it is necessary to develop a geo-eco-tourism integrated who provide its harvest and will argue the benefits resources of rural people of high-mountains in their own environment. It is proposed in the perspective to initiate a sustainable development approach, while ensuring the conservation and ensure the continued natural existence of the surroundings environments and to appreciate the potential of the region. Thus that beauty hidden in the hin-terland upstream to a tourist eager for discoveries, to encourage them to practice their stay as short as it is, in a safe space and very quiet. In order to materialize the concept of geo-eco-tourism, we must deploy the ef-forts of local people, policy makers and scientists in order to produce tourist maps with different interesting routes, to implant signal panels, to develop tracks campsites and trails within the forests, creating shelters and rest houses in private homes, as well as provide training for specialized guide’s rescuers.
Multiple Myeloma in Unusually Young Patient: A Case Report  [PDF]
Fatima Ez-Zahra El Mangad, Imane El Bouchti
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.515119
Abstract:

Multiple myeloma, a disease of elderly, is extremely rare in those about 30 years of age. A patient with MM diagnosed at age 27 is described. He was a male with a four-month history of back pain and later, hemurus and tibia pain persisting despite NSAIDS. X-rays had shown lytic lesions on lateral radiograph of the skull and the humerus. His ESR was 120 mm. Serum calcium was 125 mg/l and glomerular filtration rate at 25 ml/min. There was a beta2 peak in the serum protein electrophoresis. The Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated a strong reaction for the Lambda light chain in all tumor cells. Bence Jones protein was present in urine. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Our patient was treated with dexamethasone, zoledronic acid, cyclophosphamide and thalidomide with good evolution. Actually, he was proposed for stem cell transplantation. This report illustrated that multiple myeloma should be even evoked in young patients.

Pregnancy with Gastric Stromal Tumor  [PDF]
Iliass Charif, Najat Khalil, Abdelmalek Ousadden, El Bachir Benjelloun, Ouafae Slimani, Fatima Zahra Fdili Alaoui, Fatima Zahra Hijri, Omar Mesbahi, Adil Ibrahimi, Ihsane Mellouki
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.311124
Abstract: Background: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. GIST are rare during pregnancy. We report here the case of a patient who was admitted in our university hospital for GIST discovered during the second trimester of pregnancy. She was 42 years old, in the fifth months of pregnancy. She was admitted for biliary colic pain with vomiting. On abdominal examination, we objectified a distended abdomen with uterine height of 18 cm and epigastric mass of 10 cm. Abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a hepatic, tissue and cystic mass, developing at the expense of the left liver. Endoscopy objectified an aspect of extrinsic compression at the front of the stomach. A cesarean was scheduled at the 35th month of pregnancy for fetal extraction and rescue. Exploration of the peritoneal cavity during surgery has objectified a hepatic highly vascularised mass reaching up to the umbilicus. This mass was unresectable. A postoperative CT scan revealed a large bilobed epigastric mass adhering to the stomach and the left liver. Histological and immunohistochemical study of hepatic process showed a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of high risk of malignancy. Conclusion: few cases have been reported in the literature on GIST during pregnancy showing the rarity of the condition that requires multidisciplinary care.
Nutritional Status and School Achievements in a Rural Area of Anti-Atlas, Morocco  [PDF]
Mohamed El Hioui, Fatima-Zahra Azzaoui, Ahmed Omar Touhami Ahami, Youssef Aboussaleh
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.28119
Abstract: Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of children. However, malnutrition affects physical growth, cognitive development, physical work capacity, and it consequently influences human performance and health. The present study was designed to identify factors that may influence the nutritional status and educational achievements of the children in a rural area of ANTI Atlas of Morocco. The nutritional status of 162 children (12 to 15 years of age) was assessed by nutritional anthropometry and compared with tables of weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores (WAZ and HAZ) identifying wasting and stunting, respectively. A questionnaire was developed to collect information about socio-economic and demographic status of the children’s families. Also, educational achievements were assessed by their score in mathematics. A total of 162 children (64 boys and 98 girls), aged 12 –15 years. Results revealed 22.8% of stunting and 35.2% of wasting. Child age (p = 0.027), illiteracy of the mother (p = 0.004) was determinant factors with wasting. Stunting was significantly associated with gender (p = 0.03) and parents’ employment (p = 0.009). However, using logistic regression analysis, the results showed that stunting (p = 0.04) and mother level of education (p = 0.032) were significantly correlated with school achievements.In this area of study, malnutrition remains a major problem among adolescents’ school performances, which can affect their future. The main causes of malnutrition seem to be the bad weaning practices among school children and cultural attitudes of food. The educational achievements of school children are influenced by maternal education and stunting.
The Influence of Gonadectomy on Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Effects of Melatonin in Male and Female Wistar Rats: A Possible Implication of Sex Hormones  [PDF]
El Mrabet Fatima Zahra, Lagbouri Ibtissam, Mesfioui Abdelhalim, El Hessni Aboubakr, Ouichou Ali
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2012.32021
Abstract: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of sex, ovariectomy (Ovx) and orchidectomy (Orx) on antidepressant and anxiolytic effect of melatonin in forced swimming test, open field test and elevated plus maze test. Initially, 4 mg/kg of melatonin was daily administered, at 4:00 pm, to intact male and female rats during 8 weeks. Our results have shown that the effect of chronic injection of Mel is sex dependent in the three behaviors tests. Females rats have responded better than males in behavior test study after administration of melatonin, this difference between the sexes may be related to the action of sex hormones (androgens and estrogens) on behavior in males as well as in females. Secondly, to determine the possible interaction between Melatonin and steroid hormones, Ovx/sham female received Mel at dose of 4mg/kg alone or NaCl (0.9%) alone, and Orx/sham male received Mel at dose of 4 mg/kg alone or NaCl (0.9%) alone daily and during 8 weeks of treatment at 4:00 pm. All animals were tested in the open-field test, elevated plus maze test for anxiety behavior study, and forced swimming test for depression behavior study. Results revealed that Mel exerts an anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in the orchidectomized males and in intact females, confirming that the suppression of androgens by orchidectomy improved anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of melatonin in males. However in females, the suppression of estrogen by ovariectomy masked the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of melatonin. Our results confirmed that the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of melatonin are linked to sex hormones.
Pinealectomy and Exogenous Melatonin Regulate Anxiety-Like and Depressive-Like Behaviors in Male and Female Wistar Rats  [PDF]
El Mrabet Fatima Zahra, Ouaaki Siham, Mesfioui Abdelhalim, El Hessni Aboubakr, Ouichou Ali
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2012.34049
Abstract: The main objective of this work was to 1) study the influence of endogenous melatonin (Mel) abolishment via pinealectomy and 2) explore exogenous Mel effect on anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior in male and female rats. Rats were shamoperated (Sh) or pinealectomized (Px) and following subgroups were selected 1) Px/NaCl (0.9%) and Sh/NaCl (0.9%) : rats injected subcutaneously, once daily for 8 weeks, with saline solution NaCl (0.9%) as vehicle; 2) Px/Mel (4 mg/Kg) and Sh/Mel (4 mg/Kg): Rats similarly injected with 4 mg/Kg of Mel. All animals were housed under a photoperiod of (LD:16/8). After different treatments animals were tested in the open-field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPM) to determine anxiety-like behavior, and forced swimming test (FST) to evaluate depressive-like level. Our results revealed that level of anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior are significantly higher in Px/NaCl (0.9%) when compared to Sh/NaCl (0.9%) group, suggesting that pinelectomy induced an anxiogenic and depressant effects. The Px effects would be due to the absence of endogenous Mel synthesis and release. Additionally, we clearly demonstrated that the level of anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior are higher in Px/Mel (4 mg/Kg) and Sh/Mel when compared respectively to Px/NaCl (4 mg/Kg) and Sh/NaCl groups suggesting an anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of exogenous Mel. Behavioral responses were sex dependent since the difference between females and males, especially, after melatonin administration, were statistically significant. These experiments provide evidence that pinealectomy and Mel regulated emotionally behavior in male and female rats.
Synthesis and Influence of Two Quinoxalinone Derivatives on Anxiety- and Depressive-Like Responses in Wistar Rat  [PDF]
Redouan Nakache, Brahim Lakhrissi, Fatima Zahra El Mrabet, Aboubaker Elhessni, Ali Ouichou, Bouchra Benazzouz, Abdelhalem Mesfioui
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2012.34039
Abstract: Two new quinoxalinone derivatives have been synthesized adopting the HONG method, and investigated for some neuropharmacological effects (anxiety- and depressive-like responses) in rats. The present experiment sought to determine whether treatment with these compounds produces changes in affective responses. We found that the chronic injection of 6-nitro-2(1H)-quinoxalinone (NQu) showed obvious anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects, respectively, measured in the behavioral tests of Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Forced Swim Test (FST). At the dose of 30 mg/kg, NQu showed a comparative anxiolytic-like effect in rats as diazepam (Dz) (1 mg/kg), and a comparative antidepressant effect as clomipramine (Clmp) (2 mg/kg; i.p). The 2(1H)-quinoxalinone (Qu) significantly reduced depressive-like responses as evaluated in FST, whereas no anxiolytic-like effect was found as measured by open field test (OF). Additionally, the locomotor activity levels were unaffected by treatment as measured by OF and EPM.
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