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Relation between Carotid Stenosis Severity, Plaque Echogenicity Characteristics and IMT Assessed by Ultrasound in the Community Population of Southern China  [PDF]
Huanquan Liao, Hua Hong, Hongxuan Wang
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102014
Abstract: Carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAA) is one of the major high-risk mechanisms of stroke. Relationship between IMT, carotid plaque echogenicity and carotid stenosis assessed by ultrasound has not been systemically studied, especially in subjects with mild to moderate carotid stenosis. In this study we measured these 3 different ultrasound-derived quantitative traits concurrently in the community population of southern China and compared their associations. We found that IMTmean in the non-stenosis group (0%), <30% group and ≥30% group were 0.72 ± 0.11 mm, 0.85 ± 0.13 mm, 0.90 ± 0.17 mm respectively. IMTmean of the <30% group and ≥30% group were higher than that of 0% group (P < 0.01), ≥30% group was higher than <30% group (P < 0.01). IMTmean in the no-plaque group, hyperechoic group and hypoechoic group were 0.75 ± 0.13 mm, 0.87 ± 0.17 mm, 0.84 ± 0.15 mm respectively. IMTmean of the hyperechoic group and the hypoechoic group was higher than that of the no-plaque group (P < 0.01), IMTmean of the hypoechoic group was lower than that of the hyperechoic group, though with no statistic significance (P = 0.58). The proportion of hyperechoic or hypoechoic plaque in the <30% group was higher than that in the non-stenosis group (P < 0.01), as well as proportion of hypoechoic plaque in the ≥30% group was higher than that in the <30% group (P < 0.01). Our study indicated that there is definite correlation between stenosis severity, plaque echogenicity characteristics and IMT in evaluation the extent of CAA with ultrasound. The result suggests that the 3 different ultrasound-derived quantitative traits, are a progressing process, and this process increases the risk of stroke, thus medical treatment especially stabilizing the plaques is necessary.
Induced Susceptibility of Host Is Associated with an Impaired Antioxidant System Following Infection with Cryptosporidium parvum in Se-Deficient Mice
Chengmin Wang, Yanyun Wu, Jianhua Qin, Haoxue Sun, Hongxuan He
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004628
Abstract: Background Susceptibility or resistance to infection with Cryptosporidium parvum (C.parvum) correlates with Selenium (Se) deficiency in response to infection. Both adult Se-adequate and Se-deficient mouse models of cryptosporidiosis were used to study the cell-mediated immune response during the course of C. parvum infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples from mouse models were used for Se status. The concentration of MDA, SOD, GPx and CAT in blood has revealed that lower Se level exist in Se-deficient mice. Mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes from both mouse models were proliferated after ex vivo re-stimulation with C. parvum sporozoite antigen. The study of the cytokine profiles from the supernatant of proliferated MLN cells revealed that Se-adequate mice produced higher levels of Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2) and moderate amounts of Th2 (IL-4) cytokines throughout the course of infection. Whereas, MLN cells from Se-deficient mice produced lower levels of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4 cytokines. The counts of total white cell and CD3, CD4, CD8 cell in Se-adequate were higher than that in Se-deficient mice. Significance These results suggest that Cell immunity is affected by Se status after infection with C.parvum from kinetic changes of different white cells and cytokine. In conclusion, induced susceptibility of host is associated with an impaired antioxidant system following infection with C.parvum in C57BL/6 Selenium deficient mice.
MHC class I loci of the Bar-Headed goose (Anser indicus)
Liang, Qinglong;Wei, Lei;Wang, Xinwei;He, Hongxuan;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572010000300031
Abstract: mhc class i proteins mediate functions in anti-pathogen defense. mhc diversity has already been investigated by many studies in model avian species, but here we chose the bar-headed goose, a worldwide migrant bird, as a non-model avian species. sequences from exons encoding the peptide-binding region (pbr) of mhc class i molecules were isolated from liver genomic dna, to investigate variation in these genes. these are the first mhc class i partial sequences of the bar-headed goose to be reported. a preliminary analysis suggests the presence of at least four mhc class i genes, which share great similarity with those of the goose and duck. a phylogenetic analysis of bar-headed goose, goose and duck mhc class i sequences using the nj method supports the idea that they all cluster within the anseriforms clade.
Serum Neopterin as a Novel Marker for Carotid Artery Stenosis in Community Subjects  [PDF]
Huanquan Liao, Zhichao Yan, Hongxuan Wang, Hua Hong
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105083
Abstract:
Background: Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is one of the major high-risk mechanisms of stroke. Neopterin, an immune modulator secreted by macro-phages, has been reported to be elevated in patients with cerebrovascular dis-ease. However, an association between serum neopterin level and CAS has not been firmly established. Objective: To investigate the cross-sectional relation-ship between serum neopterin levels and CAS assessed by ultrasound. Meth-ods: The study participants were volunteers in a community-based cohort aim-ing to prevent stroke in Guangzhou. Bilateral carotid artery ultrasonography was performed to assess the carotid atherosclerosis. After participant criterion screening and random sampling, finally 140 subjects were studied in our pre-sent study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to measured serum neopterin concentrations. Results: Neopterin level in the CAS and con-trol group was 5.4 (3.3 - 7.3) nmol/L and 4.6 (3.6 - 5.4) nmol/L respectively, with a significant difference (P < 0.05). After multivariate adjusted, neopterin levels remained an independent factor. With per 1.0 nmol/L (approximately 1 IQR) increasing, the OR value was 1.84 (95% CI: 1.25 - 2.71, P < 0.05). ROC curve of serum neopterin concentrations for the prediction of CAS revealed that the area under curve was 0.665 (P < 0.01). The cutoff value of 5.1 nmol/L had a sensitivity of 68.6% and specificity of 61.5% in detecting CAS. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that circulating neopterin level is increased in subclinical carotid atherosclerosis population with CAS and reinforce the key roles of inflammatory response in the pathogenesis.
Selenium deficiency impairs host innate immune response and induces susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes infection
Chengmin Wang, Haijing Wang, Jing Luo, Yi Hu, Lei Wei, Mingxing Duan, Hongxuan He
BMC Immunology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2172-10-55
Abstract: Se-deficient mouse models of listeriosis were used to study the innate immune response during the course of L. monocytogenes infection. Blood samples from mouse models were used for Se status. The concentration of MDA, SOD, GPx and CAT in blood has revealed that lower Se level exist in Se-deficient mice. Intestine, mesenteric lymph node, liver, spleen and brain from each mouse were to study the bacterial burden in organs. The analysis of cell types of spleen from Se-deficient mice revealed that the ability of the host to elicit a rapid recruitment and activation of systemic innate immune response to infection was to a certain extent compromised under conditions of Se deficiency. The cytokine levels in the serum and cytokine expression levels in the livers from Se-deficient mice revealed that the innate immune response of Se-deficient mice was impaired throughout the course of infection. These results suggest that innate immune response is altered by Se deficiency after infection with L. monocytogenes.In conclusion, induced susceptibility of host resistance is associated with an impaired innate immune response following infection with L. monocytogenes in C57BL/6 Se-deficient mice.Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a gram-positive bacterial rod which may cause severe infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients as well as in fetuses, neonates, and the elderly [1]. Congenital infection is the most severe form, usually presenting as granulomatosis infantiseptica, a generalized disease involving the central nervous system (CNS), the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory system, the lymphatic system, and the kidney. Mortality from neonatal listeriosis is high and virtually 100% if left untreated [2]. L. monocytogenes was recognized as a foodborne pathogen since the 1980s when several outbreaks of listeriosis were identified in Europe and North America [1].Selenium (Se) is of fundamental importance to human health. It is an essential component of seve
Effects of Early Blood Pressure Lowering on Early and Long-Term Outcomes after Acute Stroke: An Updated Meta-Analysis
Hongxuan Wang, Yamei Tang, Xiaoming Rong, Hui Li, Rui Pan, Yidong Wang, Ying Peng
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097917
Abstract: Background Hypertension is common after acute stroke onset. Previous studies showed controversial effects of early blood pressure (BP) lowering on stroke outcomes. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of early BP lowering on early and long-term outcomes after acute stroke. Methods A meta-analysis was conducted with prospective randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of early BP lowering on early and long-term outcomes after acute stroke compared with placebo. Literature searching was performed in the databases from inception to December 2013. New evidence from recent trials were included. Outcomes were analyzed as early (within 30 days) and long-term (from 3 to 12 months) endpoints using summary estimates of relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) with the fixed-effect model or random-effect model. Results Seventeen trials providing data from 13236 patients were included. Pooled results showed that early BP lowering after acute stroke onset was associated with more death within 30 days compared with placebo (RR: 1.34 and 95% CI: 1.02, 1.74, p = 0.03). However the results showed that early BP lowering had no evident effect on early neurological deterioration, early death within 7 days, long-term death, early and long-term dependency, early and long-term combination of death or dependency, long-term stroke recurrence, long-term myocardial infarction and long-term CVE. Conclusions The new results lend no support to early BP lowering after acute stroke. Early BP lowering may increase death within 30 days after acute stroke.
Preparation and Characterization of a Chloroperoxidase-like Catalytic Antibody
Fengyang Wang,Xueying Huang,Li Du,Weiguo Li,Hongxuan He,Chao Qi
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2007, DOI: 10.3390/i8050445
Abstract: The small molecule, meso-tetra(α,α,α,α-o-phenylacetamidophenyl)porphyrin(Mr1147.0) was used as complete antigen to elicit MAb through the immunization and cellfusion techniques.The MAb 1F2 obtained was demonstrated to be very pure byMALDI/TOFMS.The subtype of MAb 1F2 is IgG2a, which has a relative molecular weightof 156,678.8 Da.No significant change in the intensity of absorption peaks in UV and CDspectra was observed over a pH range between 6 and 12.The high stability of the abzymeand the tight binding between Fe porphyrin and antibody were also demonstrated.Vmax, Km,κcat, κcat/Km for abzyme are 5.18 × 10-8 Ms-1, 1.50 × 10-8M , 0.518 s-1, 3.45 × 107 M-1s-1, respectively.The data obtained indicate that catalytic antibody has highcatalytic activity.The chloroperoxidase activity of MAb 1F2-Fe porphyrin complex is stablefrom 10 °C to 60 °C.
Molecular characterization of H1N1 influenza A viruses from human cases in North America
Bin Wu,ChengMin Wang,GuoYing Dong,Jing Luo,BaoHua Zhao,HongXuan He
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-009-0421-y
Abstract: Subtypes of H1N1 influenza virus can be found in humans in North America, while they are also associated with the infection of swine. Characterization of the genotypes of viral strains in human populations is important to understand the source and distribution of viral strains. Genomic and protein sequences of 10 isolates of the 2009 outbreak of influenza A (H1N1) virus in North America were obtained from GenBank database. To characterize the genotypes of these viruses, phylogenetic trees of genes PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, NA, NS and M were constructed by Phylip3.67 program and N-Linked glycosylation sites of HA, NA, PB2, NS1 and M2 proteins were analyzed online by NetNGlyc1.0 program. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these isolates are virtually identical but may be recombinant viruses because their genomic fragments come from different viruses. The isolates also contain a characteristic lowly pathogenic amino acid motif at their HA cleavage sites (IPSIQSR↓GL), and an E residue at position 627 of the PB2 protein which shows its high affinity to humans. The homologous model of M proteins showed that the viruses had obtained the ability of anti-amantadine due to the mutation at the drug-sensitive site, while sequence analysis of NA proteins indicated that the viruses are still susceptible to the neuraminidase inhibitor drug (i.e. oseltamivir and zanamivir) because no mutations have been observed. Our results strongly suggested that the viruses responsible for the 2009 outbreaks of influenza A (H1N1) virus have the ability to cross species barriers to infect human and mammalian animals based on molecular analysis. These findings may further facilitate the therapy and prevention of possible transmission from North America to other countries.
Qualitative and quantitative analyses of influenza virus receptors in trachea and lung tissues of humans, mice, chickens and ducks
BaoLin Wang,Bo Liu,Ling Chen,JianYong Zhang,HongXuan He,Hong Zhang
Science China Life Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11427-012-4341-8
Abstract: To accurately determine the expression and distribution patterns of two influenza virus receptors (SAα2,3-gal and SAα2,6-gal) in trachea and lung tissues of humans, mice, chickens and ducks, we analyzed lectin immunofluorescence stainings of various tissue sections qualitatively and quantitatively. Results from the qualitative analysis showed that both influenza virus receptors were expressed in lung tissues of humans, mice, chickens and ducks as well as trachea tissues of mice and ducks. However, SAα2,6-gal receptor was expressed only in the human trachea tissue and SAα2,3-gal receptor was expressed only in the chicken trachea tissue. Results from the quantitative analysis demonstrated that both receptors were expressed in trachea tissues of human and mouse, as well as in lung tissues of humans, chickens and ducks. Meanwhile, our results also showed that the expression and distribution of influenza virus receptors in the same tissue were not always uniform, indicating that their distribution and expression in various tissues are not simply the distinction between the presence or absence of receptors, but rather the difference in the amount of expressed receptors.
The tricks plants use to reach appropriate light
DaiYin Chao,HongXuan Lin
Science China Life Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s11427-010-4047-8
Abstract: The perception of ambient light signals that produce a relevant response to ensure exposure to appropriate levels of light energy is vital for plants. In response to this, intricate molecular mechanisms to mediate light signaling have evolved in plants. Among the responses induced by light, seedling extension is a determining event for plant survival in darkness, especially in the initial stage of plant growth. Here we review previous studies and recent progress towards an understanding of light signaling that regulates seedling elongation. We focus on the three regions of the sunlight spectrum that primarily control seedling elongation, namely red/far-red light, blue/UV-A light and UV-B light, and summarize the four signaling pathways that correspond to the three effective spectra.
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