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Surrogate Motherhood in Colombia as a Gender Situation  [PDF]
José Antonio García Pereánez, Lina María Ríos Martínez, Jeisson Londono Quiroz
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104943
Abstract:
Surrogate motherhood is an assisted human reproduction method. This method is developed when a woman, in this case, genetic substitute, commits to carry a baby with the obligation to deliver him/her to the contracting parties when he/she is born. This paper reports the analysis of “Surrogate Motherhood in Colombia as a Gender Situation”, which was achieved by applying guidelines of qualitative research, investigating the Colombian Law, Jurisprudence, and Doctrine on regulation in issues of surrogate motherhood. It was found that this practice is violating the dignity of women, and gives a category of “thing” to the human being. In these two members of Centro Democrático political party, following a legal, social, and ethical study on surrogate motherhood, articulated the Bill 026, 2016, seeking to give a greater protection to women and children conceived under this method, after years of failed bills, as was the case of 037, 2009. This analysis concluded that this practice has been carried out in Colombia in a disproportionate manner, which entails the violation of human rights for both the unborn child and the newborn baby resulting from this practice, as well as for the other participants.
Bioequivalencia de dos formulaciones de metformina, tabletas de 850 mg, en voluntarios sanos colombianos*
Cuesta González,Fanny; Holguín Martínez,Gloria; Archbold Joseph,Rosendo; Ruiz Correa,Adriana; Restrepo Garay,Margarita María; Pe?a Acevedo,Lina; Montoya Beltrán,Blanca; Ríos Toro,Juan Carlos; Correa Cano,Omar;
Iatreia , 2005,
Abstract: introduction: metformin is an orally active antidiabetic agent used to treat type ii diabetes; it is found in the colombian market in both the innovator brand and the generic formulations. the latter have to prove some biopharmaceutical quality outcomes to guarantee interchangeable proprieties. objective: to determine whether the drug dimefor?/metformina mk is bioequivalent to the reference product glucophage?, when the products are administrated, at the same dose, to a group of healthy volunteers. method: the study was made with 24 healthy volunteers who met the inclusion criteria and spontaneously decided to participate after being thoroughly informed. we used a two-sequence threeperiod randomized, crossed and double-blind study. the volunteers took an 850 mg dose of each medicine; then, blood samples were taken throughout 24 hours and the metformin quantification in plasma was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with uv detection (hplc/uv). for statistical analysis, schuirmann's test was used. results: the study showed that both preparations are bioequivalent; confidence intervals for ln auc0-∞", ln cmax, ln auc0-tmax and tmax were [84.6-100.0%], [89.1-109.0%], [83.4-1.4%] and [85.1-109.8% ], respectively.
Estudio de bioequivalencia de clonazepam, tabletas de 2 mg, en voluntarios sanos colombianos
GONZáLEZ,FANNY CUESTA; HOLGUíN MARTíNEZ,GLORIA; ARCHBOLD JOSEPH,ROSENDO RICARDO; PARRA,SERGIO; RESTREPO GARAY,MARGARITA MARíA; PE?A ACEVEDO,LINA MARíA; MONTOYA BELTRáN,BLANCA CECILIA; RíOS TORO,JUAN CARLOS; TORO PAREJA,VICTORIA EUGENIA; CORREA CANO,OMAR DE JESúS; RUIZ CORREA,ADRIANA MARíA;
Iatreia , 2007,
Abstract: in order to determine the bioequivalence of two formulations of clonazepam 2 mg tablets: sedatril?/clonazepam mk (tecnoquímicas s. a., cali, colombia) as a test product and rivotril? (roche químicos e farmacêuticas s. a., rio de janeiro, brazil) as a reference product, a bioavailability study was performed in 26 healthy volunteers. test and reference products were administered under fasting conditions following a single dose, two-sequences, two treatments, crossover randomized design with a 28-day-washout period. blood samples were obtained from 0 to 96 hours after dosing. plasma clonazepam levels were determined by a validated high performance liquid chromatography with uv detection method (hplc/uv). abc 0-96, abc 0-∞, cmax, tmax, t?, and ke, pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from plasma level-time profiles by a noncompartmental method. ln-trasformed abc 0-∞ and cmax were tested for bioequivalence. 90%-confidence intervals for test/reference ratio of these parameters were 87.9% to 103.6% and 84.4% to 104.0%, respectively. these results were within the fda acceptance range of 80% to 125% and it was concluded that both products were bioequivalent.
Ni?o sibilante crónico y doble arco aórtico tipo "D": informe de un caso
Ríos-Méndez,Raúl E; Aráuz-Martínez,María E;
Archivos argentinos de pediatr?-a , 2008,
Abstract: right aortic arch with retroesophageal left innominate artery is an unusual pathology. the presence of patent ductus arteriosus, or left ductal ligament, does complete the vascular ring (type "d" double aortic arch). in infants with dysphagia, stridor and/ or recurrent wheezing, presence of vascular rings may be suspected. in older patients this diagnose is less common. children in school age or older with risk factors, positive bronchodilator test and bad evolution, could have other unusual ethiologies. we report an 8 year old patient with previous diagnosis of asthma with inadecuate response to treatment in whom this no frequent type of vascular ring was confirmed.
La construcción de desigualdades en el mercado de trabajo de los investigadores en México
Ríos, Guillermo Campos;Daza, Germán Sánchez;Ita, María Eugenia Martínez de;
Avalia??o: Revista da Avalia??o da Educa??o Superior (Campinas) , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1414-40772011000100005
Abstract: this article shows how the labor market of researchers in mexico - characterized by a high level of education - is also ruled by blind institutional structures that, finally, reproduce inequities in a similar way to those which we would encounter in any other workers' segment with a lesser level of education. though, evidently, the intensity of inequities is smaller and in some occasions they turn out to be transfigured. this segment has a growth dynamic that advances in the opposite direction to what happens in the current context of the massive destruction of employment. inequities are orientated towards female and young researchers and, although we can find exceptional working conditions with regard to other segments, these conditions are extraordinarily fragile. the main obstacle to the absolute and rational growth of the activity of research in mexico - leaving the persistently low investment in r+d of the mexican government - is the concentration of the research in the f.d. and in three institutions: the unam, the uam and the politechnical institute (ipn). we conclude with the need to go on to the second phase of institutionalization of research in mexico.
PRIMACíA VISUAL:: TRANSFERENCIA ANTE EL CAMBIO DE LA RELACIóN ENTRE ESTíMULOS *
VARELA**,JULIO; MARTíNEZ,CARLOS; PADILLA,M. ANTONIA; RíOS,AMéRICO; AVALOS,MARíA LUISA; JIMéNEZ,BERNARDO;
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología , 2006,
Abstract: ninety subjects with different ages and school experience were trained on a zero-delay, second-order matching-to-sample task. the task consisted in the class identification of vegetables and animals (in any order) as living beings. stimuli could be visual, auditory, or both in one of six possible arrays of second-order, sample, and comparison stimuli. transfer tests changed the identity word relation, classified as objects, animals or vegetables. transfer sessions involved test trials (1) with the same number; (2) fewer; or (3) more auditory stimuli than in training. one 7 years old student four 10 years old, seven 14 years old and fourteen college students learned the task when this included more visual than auditory stimuli. fifteen subjects 14 years old of another sample obtained the training criterion and maintained it at transfer tests. the study points out the importance the visual stimulus had in this kind of task. the function of the scholar training is also discussed.
CARACTERIZACIóN GEOLóGICA DEL CUERPO VOLCáNICO DE IZA, BOYACá - COLOMBIA
Monsalve,María Luisa; Rojas,Nadia R.; Velandia P.,Francisco A.; Pintor,Iraida; Martínez,Lina Fernanda;
Boletin de Geología , 2011,
Abstract: iza volcanic structure (5°36'20''n - 72°59'33'' w) is the result of rising riodacitic to ryolithic magmatic pulses, which didn′t reach the surface, the first of them giving origin to an intrusive breccias, interpreted as the result of indirect hot deep magma interaction with a sedimentary aquifer, leading to vapor overpressure and consequent fragmentation of the host rocks. the intrusive breccia form the southern part of the iza edifice, it is massive beige to light red in color, locally with pseudo columnar joint; it is composed by angular to subrounded sedimentary and minor igneous rock fragments in a porphyry rhyotlitic matrix. this stage is followed by dome emplacement which are dacitic to rhyolitic in composition. petrographic analisys show that they are similar to the matrix breccia; they have a porphiritic texture, phenocrist of sanidine, quartz and plagioclase and glassy matrix. locally the domes are fractured presenting breccias facies (autobreccia and jig saw breccias, among others). relationship with the host rock allow to interpreting the volcanic body as a crypto-domes, outcropping at surface by faulting and erosion.
Characteristics of recreational substance consumption in night clubs in the Aburrá Valley
Gloria I. Martínez D,Lina M. Martínez S,María A. Rodríguez G,Cristian C. Benítez R
Revista Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: to explore the demographic characteristics and the features of “recreational substance” consumption in people attending night clubs located in some of the municipalities of the Aburrá Valley. Methodology: we designed a crosssectional study; the population was made-up of adult males and females that attend night clubs in the Aburrá Valley. The sonar 98 modified survey was adapted by the researchers for use in this study. Results: we studied 17 night clubs. A total of 789 people participated, 57.7% of them were female, and the mean age was 23 years; 61.0% of the subjects were students. Most of the surveyed population had consumed at some point of their lives: alcohol (95%), cigarette (46.0%), cannabis (25.0%), amylnitrite or “Popper” 10.0%, “designed drugs” such as amphetamines and methamphetamines (9.0%) and sedatives and hypnotics (10.0%). Consumption first started early in life with the so-called social drugs: alcohol (at 14) and cigarette smoking (at 15). Discussion: unlike results from other worldwide studies, our exploratory survey showed that recreational drug consumption starts with socially accepted substances such as alcohol and cigarette, whereas designed drugs and other drugs have a more restricted use, and their consumption starts at older ages.
CRíA DE Diaeretiella rapae McIntosh EN UN SISTEMA DE PLANTAS BANCO
Martínez,María de los A; Ceballos,Margarita; Duarte,Leticia; Lellani Ba?os,Heyker; Sánchez,Adayakni; Chico,R;
Revista de Protecci?3n Vegetal , 2011,
Abstract: the rearing method of the parasitoid diaeretiella rapae mcintosh is first time evaluated in cuba under a banker plant system with the use of sorghum bicolor (l.) as an alternative host plant and the aphid rophalosiphum maidis, which resulted simple and ecological. it can guarantee the continued production of wasps to be used by farmers to control aphid populations in vegetables.
Erosion Behavior of AISI 6061-T6  [PDF]
Juan Rodrigo Laguna-Camacho, Hermilo Martínez-García, Frumencio Escamilla-Rodríguez, Carlos Alarcón-Rosas, Celia María Calderón-Ramón, Lizeth Ríos-Velasco, Lizeth Ríos-Velasco, Matilde Pelcastre-Lozano, álvaro Casados-Sánchez, Melesio González-Gómez
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2015.53015
Abstract: In this work, erosion tests were performed to study the behavior of an aluminium alloy known as AISI 6061-T6 against the impact action of aluminium oxide abrasive particles. This material was selected because of its high ductility and tenacity. An erosion rig based on that in ASTM G76-95 was used to conduct the tests. The alumina particles had a particle size between 300 and 400 μm. Four incident angles, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° were used to conduct the erosion tests. The particle velocity and the abrasive flow rate were 24 ± 2 m/s and 63 ± 0.5 g/min. The room temperature was between 35°C and 40°C. Chemical analysis of the material and abrasive particles were obtained using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). SEM images were employed to identify the wear mechanisms, which were characterized by high plastic deformation. The erosion rates were obtained and the results indicated that the maximum erosion damage was achieved at 30° reducing progressively at normal incidence.
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