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Endogenous Forest Development Paradigm: Challenging Current Forest Conservation Practices in Ghana  [PDF]
Thomas Agana, Millar Katherine Kaunza, David Millar
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104169
Abstract:
The centre of Ghana development is land that plays a vital role. This article focused mainly on the rapid land degradation and deforestation due to bush fires, poorly managed grazing, farming and agricultural conversion, current forest/woodland governance systems and major policy gaps that were identified. A combination of methods used included: Extensive study of secondary literature/reports/programmes/write-ups (from 1999-2004), key informant interview: a one-on-one interview with Government Officials, 7 responsible for forest management, Forestry, Commission and Traditional Institutions (men-10, women-5), elders-6, and functionaries-4 living in the community, phased assertion. The study recommend Forest Management System needs to be evolved that includes the management and development of sacred groves, shrines, sacred bodies and natures, and totems; associated with indigenous agricultural practices and seeds, indigenous agro-ecological management practices, indigenous tree and vegetation management practices, indigenous livelihood developments and human activity systems which are both enhancing and militating against biodiversity conservation and development encourage and systematically develop traditionally protect areas/plants/animals (TPAs). Attention should be paid to conservation of: 1) sacred groves; 2) burial grounds and spiritual lands; 3) sacred water bodies and fauna; 4) totemic animals; 5) traditional cultural practices; 6) farming systems; 7) traditional crop varieties; 8) home gardens; 9) graze-lands and rest lands; 10) wild fruits supply systems.
The Complexities of Women Land Ownership in Northern Ghana  [PDF]
Millar Katherine Kaunza-Nu-Dem, Babatunde Tijani, David Millar, Anafo Humphrey
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102789
Abstract:
Land issues have the potential to, and actually do generate a lot of conflicts and controversies in rural communities. In Northern Ghana, certain dilemmas, animated controversies, and conflicts about land rights, the resolution of which sometimes leads relatively innocuous compromise later manifest in several negative ramifications. For women in particular, the above negativities associated with land are even more pronounce and more protracted. This research adopted a case study approach to conduct this survey. The specific techniques used for data collection and analysis include: stratified group discussions, focus group discussions, key informant interview, phased assertion (confrontational dialogue), and critical arena analysis. The major findings include the fact that both men and women stated that land allocation to women is a regular affair now. It is the aspect of outright long-term ownership and user rights that are still very restricted. Since women do not sacrifice to the land her role in land sacrifices will be problematic. Women would prefer to acquire such formalized rights in their husbands’ homes, with the understanding that they could pass rights so acquired to their sons. Because of the intricate nature of land and the complications therein, and for the avoidance of perpetual conflicts, the women opted for increasing user-rights rather than ownership or controls of land. The concept of ownership, in their local language, was very nebulous to the women. Some were quick to state that they never wanted to own land. The study thus recommended that the socio-cultural values and practices in the area were inimical to any reforms to mainstream women in land issues. An extensive education and re-education of communities, linked with exposing them to best practices elsewhere are recommended. An endogenous development approach is recommended for such an education. There is a need to strengthen dialogue between women and men on issues of land. When men appreciate the benefits of making land available to women it facilitates the ease of giving out land. Economic empowerment of women is also recommended as a way of making land more accessible to women. The women contend that when they have money or wealth in the form of livestock, these assets make it easier for them to either rent land or engage in some form of traditional land tenure arrangement to acquire land for farming purposes.
Ozone and its use in periodontal treatment  [PDF]
Dimitrios Iliadis, Brian J. Millar
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2013.32034
Abstract:

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of ozone in periodontal treatment in dental practice. Methods: An evaluation of the current state of knowledge regarding the application of ozone in periodontal treatment revealed limited available literature. Therefore an audit was conducted in dental practice in order to evaluate the effects of ozone in periodontal treatment. Twenty-five patients were treated with gaseous ozone after having had failed conventional periodontal treatment. BPE scores and the six deepest pockets were measured in each patient before and after the use of ozone. Results: From the initial number of twenty-nine patients selected, twenty-five patients attended both follow up appointments. Based on BPE scores, twenty of the patients have overall improvement while five of the patients continued to have deterioration. Eight patients had an improvement in depths of periodontal pockets by three millimetres, sixteen patients had improvement by one to two millimetres and one patient did not improve. The depth of pockets after the use of ozone decreased significantly (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The audit revealed that gaseous ozone significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the depth of pockets in patients with periodontal disease. The positive results encourage further investigation in the subject.

Glomalin and Soil Aggregation under Six Management Systems in the Northern Great Plains, USA  [PDF]
Kristine A. Nichols, James Millar
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2013.38043
Abstract:

The soil environment is linked to aboveground management including plant species composition, grazing intensity, levels of soil disturbance, residue management, and the length of time of a living plant is growing. Soil samples were collected under rangeland [native grass, rotational grazing (NGRG); tame grass, heavy grazing (TGRG); and tame grass, rotational grazing (TGHG)] and cropland [conventional till (CT); CT plus manure (CTM); and long term no till (NT)] systems. The rangeland systems were hypothesized to have higher glomalin content [measured as Bradford-reactive soil protein (BRSP)] and water stable aggregation (WSA) than the cropland systems. In addition, within both rangeland and cropland systems, BRSP and WSA were expected to decline with increased disturbance due to grazing or tillage and going from native to introduced plant species. Differences were detected for BRSP with NGRG and CTM having the highest values in range and cropland systems, respectively. However, the CTM system had higher BRSP values than one or both of the tame grass systems while the CT and NT systems had similar values. Correlation analysis showed strong relationships between all of the BRSP values and WSA.

An in Vitro Study of Microleakage Comparing Total-Etch with Bonding Resin and Self-Etch Adhesive Luting Cements for All-Ceramic Crowns  [PDF]
Brian J. Millar, Sanjukta Deb
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2014.43020
Abstract: Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the dye leakage present following cementation of all-ceramic crowns with 7 currently used cements to compare total-etch (TE) with dentine bonding agent (DBA) and self-etch (SE) systems. Methods: Forty-two Authentic? crowns were fabricated and cemented onto extracted human teeth using 7 currently available cements (2 two-stage adhesives (TE + DBA): Panavia 21 Kuraray; Paracore, Coltene Whaledent and 5 all-in-one adhesives (SE): MaxCem Kerr; Panavia F2.0 Kuraray; RelyX Unicem 3MEspe; seT SDI). Following storage in water and thermal cycling, the teeth were exposed to dye, sectioned and examined under confocal microscopy. Leakage was determined by two blinded examiners and scoring was carried out on a scale of 0 - 8 per tooth (0 = no leakage, 8 complete leakage across the section). One overall reading was obtained per tooth with 6 teeth per material. Results: The results showed a wide range of scores between the different cements. Only a few specimens which used TE + DBA showed slight marginal leakage: Paracore (mean score 0 ± 0) and Panavia 21 (0.3 ± 0.5). The majority of specimens using SE showed leakage: RelyX Unicem (0.8 ± 0.8), SmartCem (1.7 ± 2.1), MaxCem (3.2 ± 1.7), Panavia F2.0 (4.5 ± 2.4) then seT (5.2 ± 2.5). Statistical analysis was carried out showing that Paracore and Panavia 21 were significantly less prone to leakage than MaxCem, (P = 0.002) and seT (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, the choice of luting cement is important in reducing dye leakage. This study strongly favours the use of a TE with separate adhesive system placed prior to the composite luting resin.
Effect of Autoclave Sterilisation on the Dimensional Stability and Tear Strength of Three Silicone Impression Materials  [PDF]
Brian J. Millar, Sanjukta Deb
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2014.412069
Abstract: Objectives: There is a risk of spreading infectious material via non-sterile impressions. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of autoclave sterilisation on dimensional stability and tear strength of impression materials. Methods: Twenty-four specimens were produced using a standard ruled test block for each of three impression materials (Affinis, Aquasil and Speedex) to test dimensional stability. Thirty tear strips for each material were prepared for the tear test (ISO 34-1). Specimens were randomly allocated to 3 different groups (autoclaved, disinfected or untreated). A non-contact scanner was used to analyse dimensional change and a universal testing machine was used to determine tear strengths. Results: There were no significant differences in the test dimensions measured for any of the three impression materials following autoclave treatment compared to the disinfected or untreated control groups. The tear strengths were not adversely affected by autoclave sterilisation at 134°C. Conclusion: These addition and condensation-cured silicone impression materials can be steam autoclaved without adverse effects on dimensional accuracy or tear strength.
Anti-cytokine therapy in fibrosing alveolitis: where are we now?
Ann Millar
Respiratory Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/rr2
Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic debilitating illness that leads inexorably to respiratory failure and death in most patients [1]. The 5-year mortality approaches 50% in most studies [2]. The efficacy of any treatment is questionable and this can lead to a rather nihilistic approach. Received wisdom suggests that this is a rare disease occurring mainly in elderly men and for which currently available treatment is often ineffective and can induce side effects that are worse than the condition itself. The symptoms of gradually increasing breathlessness are non-specific and often attributed to `old age', leading to presentation at a point that can be late in the natural history of the condition. Current therapy is usually corticosteroids with or without some form of immunosuppressant. However, the data upon which this is based are limited. The fact that these treatments are still widely used reflects the difficulty of a palliative approach for clinicians and patients in such a distressing condition.The available studies of treatment for IPF are in small numbers of patients and are rarely controlled trials [3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14]. On reviewing these studies, it is apparent that some of the patients had collagen vascular disease and therefore did not have IPF. A significant number of the responders were less than 50 years old and were female, which is atypical. Histological data on these subjects were limited. The recent reclassification of interstitial lung diseases by histological features has shown a clear association between subtypes and response to treatment. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the histological pattern that identifies IPF with little response to treatment [15,16]. Overall, these data suggest that those patients who responded to treatment in a previous trial might have had non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) rather than UIP. This exemplifies problems in the design and practice of appropriate trials in IPF owing to the
Contrapuntos hagiográficos sobre el Venerable Fr. Pedro de Urraca (Jadraque 1583 - Lima 1657)
Millar,Rene;
Teología y vida , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0049-34492008000300015
Abstract: this article analyzes four hagiographies-two of them unpublished-that were written in different periods about the venerable friar pedro de urraca, who was born in jadraque, spain, in 1583, and died in lima, renowned for his sanctity, in 1657. the author studies the content and objective of these literary works with the purpose of appreciating the differences and the variations over time that they present and reflect, from the perspective of religious mentality. however, the author also examines the relation they had with the process of beatification of the protagonist, in order to try to understand the influence that they exercised on said process. at the same time, the author attempts to see the way in which this process left its traces on the characteristics and direction of the works. in this context, the author proposes that the first of the hagiographies, written within a month of the death of this servant of god and still unpublished, had a great influence on the direction that the cause of beatification took and, up to a certain point, marked the trajectory of the beatification process. the author also claims that this first hagiography influenced, directly or indirectly, the hagiographies that were written afterwards.
REVIEW: Solving difficult hepatobiliary problems in children
AJW Millar
South African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Most difficult hepatobiliary (HPB) problems in infancy and childhood result from pathological anatomical/mechanical derangements; therefore, surgery on the liver and bile ducts depends on a detailed understanding of liver structure, function and repair response to injury or disease. The surgeon must be aware of the very diverse range of anatomical variations. Perhaps key to improving the outcome of paediatric HPB surgery is centralised management and associating this with a paediatric liver transplant programme, which adds expertise and, frequently, the added benefit of adult HPB surgical input to paediatric surgical care. In the United Kingdom, this has resulted in excellent measurable benefit, particularly in the management of biliary atresia, but also of choledochal cysts, portal hypertension and liver tumours. These conditions are briefly discussed here, with focus on the technical aspects of operative management.
Authority and Parenthood: how facts on China's political economy travelled to and within Europe during the Enlightenment
Ashley Millar
Graduate Journal of Social Science , 2009,
Abstract:
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