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FAILURE TO THRIVE (FTT) UNDER ONE YEAR
MUHAMMAD AZAM
The Professional Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: Objectives: The aims of this study were to find out various factorsresponsible for FTT in the babies less than one year and the impact of breast feeding on prevention of FTT. Materialand methods: The sampling procedure for the cases was stratified random sampling. All cases with weight below 2ndmajor line were considered FTT and were included in the study. A detailed history of presenting complaints, inchronological order was inquired on prescribed performa. Results: In present study, FTT is mostly present amongchildren aged 0-3 months i.e. 67%. The incidence of FTT is higher among male than female babies. FTT is presentnearly twice among urban babies as compared to rural babies. FTT is mostly non-organic i.e. 86% and the commonrisk factors are illiteracy 75%, poverty 63%, poor sterilization 48%, absolute and partial lack of breast feeding 81%,improper dilution and hence under feeding 44% and absence of proper weaning 67%. In most of the babies sufferingfrom severe FTT more than 4-5, risk factors are operating. In moderate FTT less than 4, risk factors are operating.Conclusion: As a result of this study, we have suggested preventive measures for FTT.
BIRTH ASPHYXIA
MUHAMMAD AZAM
The Professional Medical Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Introduction: Birth asphyxia and the hypoxic-ischemicencephalopathy are one of the very common neonatal problems in our country. It is commonest causeof hospital admission of a newborn. Objectives: 1) To determine the incidence of different risk factorsleading to birth asphyxia in babies delivered at Nishtar Hospital, Multan. 2) To find out common clinicalpresentation of birth asphyxia. 3) To suggest measures for the prevention of birth asphyxia and thedisability resulting from it. Material and methods: This study was conducted in the department ofpediatric medicine, Nishtar Hospital, Multan. All babies born at Nishtar Hospital, Multan, presentingwith history of delayed cry ar birth for more than 1 minute and newborns of less than 7 days of age bornat Nishtar Hospital, Multan presenting any complication of birth asphyxia were included in the study.Results: The incidence of birth asphyxia is higher in preterm, intrauterine growth retarded and infantsof diabetic and toxemic mothers. Specific problems and complications of birth asphyxia depend uponinfant’s gestational age (outcome is poorest in preterm), efficiency of resuscitation and severity of thehypoxic – ischemic encephalopathy. About 6% of all live births are estimated to be asphyxiated at birth.Apgar score is widely used criterion for diagnosis of birth asphyxia. Conclusion: Emergency caesareansection was noted as a significant risk factor of birth asphyxia. The common clinical features associatedwith delayed cry, with which asphyxiated babies presented were, grunting, cyanosis, meconium stainingand meconium aspiration. Other risk factors were, prolonged rupture of membranes, antepartumhaemorrhage, pregnancy induced hypertension, eclampsia, polyhydramnios, oilgohydramnios, diabetesmellitus, breech presentation, transverse lie and obstructed labour. Fetal distress was noted in almost twothird of the asphyxiated babies. Birth asphyxia is common in males.
NEPHROTIC SYNDROME
MUHAMMAD AZAM
The Professional Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: Objective: (1) To find out relapse rate in our nephrotic patients. (2) Toassess the frequency of steroid dependent and steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome case. (3) To find out diagnosticvalue of single sample urine protein and creatinine ratio. (4) To study the complications of therapy Design: Prospective,cohort, open clinical study. Setting: Pediatrics Medicine Department Nishtar Hospital, Multan through outdoor oremergency. Period: From June 1997 to May 1998. Material and methods: Complaint of peri-orbital or generalizededema, haematuria, oliguria, azotemia, hypertension and proteinuria on urine examination. Results: 4050 patients wereadmitted during study period, only 50 patients were diagnosed nephrotic syndrome. Incidence was 1 in 8 (0.8%), maleto female ratio was nearly 2:1, and generalized edema was major clinical presentation. Most of the patients had normalrenal function and had no hypertension. Maximum 39(78%) patients had responded to steroids within 4 weeks oftherapy, 47 (94%) patients responded to steroids but only 20(40%) remained in remission, other 21(42%) patientsshowed relapse, 3(6%) were steroid resistant and 6(12%) were steroid dependent. Out of 4(8%), 3(6%) patients gaveresponse to cyclophosamide. Cushingoid features, elevated blood pressure, abdominal discomfort were commoncomplications to steroids. Single voided urine sample protein to creatinine ratio had equal significance as had 24 hoursurinary protein in diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome in children. Prognosis of this disease is good despite the recurrencethat takes place and the prolonged duration of treatment. Conclusion: We can currently depend on single morningvoided urinary protein to creatinine ratio as compared to 24 hours urinary protein, to save the time and money. Alongwith low dose steroid, liberal intake of fluids before and during cyclophosphamide therapy can reduce the risk ofhaemorrhagic cystitis.
Economic Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Armenia, Kyrgyz Republic and Turkmenistan: Theory and Evidence
Muhammad AZAM
Eurasian Journal of Business and Economics , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of different economic determinants on foreign direct investment (FDI) for three countries selected from Central Asia namely Armenia, Kyrgyz Republic and Turkmenistan. Secondary data for the period from 1991 to 2009 taken from World Development Indicator (various issues) have been utilized. Simple econometric model in log form and the least squares technique have been used. Result found indicates positive effects of market size, official development assistance on FDI and negative effect of inflation on FDI. However, in case of Armenia, the effect of official development assistance on FDI has been found insignificant and such as in case of Kyrgyz Republic, the effect of inflation on FDI has been found insignificant with expected negative sign. Thus, findings of the study recommend that market size and official development assistance needs to be encouraged and inflation needs to be managed in order to achieve higher level of FDI and accelerate the process of economic development.
Domestic and Foreign Banks’ Profitability: Differences and Their Determinants
Muhammad AZAM,Sana SIDDIQUI
International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this study to analyze and compare the profitability of domestic (Public & Private) and foreign banks operating in the Pakistan Banking market between 2004 and 2010 on quarterly basis. Total 36 Commercial Banks of Pakistani Industry have represented our sample. To control for the effect of bank ownership on performance, we split the sample into three categories: (1) domestic banks with Government Control, (2) domestic banks with Private control, and (3) foreign banks. This study also finds that foreign banks are more profitable than all domestic banks regardless of their ownership structure by applying regression analysis. This may suggest that it is better for a multinational bank to establish a subsidiary/branch rather than acquiring an “existing player” in the host country. We also found that domestic and foreign banks have different profitability determinants, i.e. factors that are important in shaping domestic banks’ profitability are not necessary important for the foreign banks and vice versa. Empirical results show that foreign banks are less affected by the macroeconomic factors of the host country than domestic banks and they have a higher profitability margin in Pakistan.
Fixed Points Results via Iterates of Four Maps in TVS-valued Cone Metric Spaces
Muhammad Arshad,Akbar Azam
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract:
NORMAL LIMITS OF KNEE ANGLE IN PAKISTANI CHILDREN
Muhammad Azam Qureshi
The Professional Medical Journal , 2000,
Abstract: Total 636 lower limbs of 318 normal Pakistani children from newborn to 12.5 years were marked for anteriorsuperior iliac spine (ASIS), centre of the patella (PC) and centre of the intermalleolar line (IMC). Limbs werephotographed in straight standing position and knee angle was geometrically measured. Male and femaledifference of knee angle was insignificant (P>0.05). We observed a general trend from extreme bowlegs ininfancy to maximum knock-knees at 4 years. Then there was a gradual progression towards neutral knee angle.Greatest mean varus of 10.01 degrees was noted in children under 6 months. Maximum valgus of 5.96 degreeswas measured at 4 years. After 11 years of age a mean valgus of 3.08 degrees was maintained. Comparedto Chinese children, Pakistanis are 5 degrees less valgus at 2 years, values level at 4 years and become 4 degreesmore valgus beyond 6 years of age. Compared to American white children, Pakistanis initially show less varus,progress slow, attain less valgus and finally remain closer to the neutral knee angle. Racial difference in kneeangle should be considered for Pakistanis to achieve the optimum results with regards to knee angle correctionor knee replacement arthroplasty.
KNEE ANGLE DEVELOPMENT IN KARACHI CHILDREN
Muhammad Azam Qureshi
The Professional Medical Journal , 2000,
Abstract: Tibial length (TL) and intermalleolar (IM) or intercondylar (IC) distance were measured in 318 Pakistanichildren aged birth to 12.5 years to establish the normal limits. We compared our values with those forAmerican white Chinese children and noted the racial differences. Malleoli touched first in Pakistanichildren, followed by Chinese and lastly in American whites. Values of three races correspond at 2 years.Chinese children reach the neutral angle at the age of 8 years and maintain the plateau till the developmentwas complete. White children attain maximum valgus at 3 years and maintain more valgus then other racestill the full progression of the knee angle. Pakistani children have valgus values in between the other tworaces, although they were nearer to those for White children. We have suggested a simple trigonometricformula for calculating knee angle from the values of TL and IC or IM. We have worked out a table for theknee angle determination that saves the time of calculation and is as useful for all the races.
RFID Applications: Prospects and Challenges in Bangladesh  [PDF]
Abdul Kadar Muhammad Masum, Faruk Bhuiyan, Kazi Golam Azam
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2013.42009
Abstract:

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an emerging technology, radio wave communication between a microchip and an electronic reader, consisting of data gathering, distribution, and management systems that has the ability to identify or scan information for remoting recognition of objects with increased speed and accuracy. An attempt has been made to know how using of RFID technology helps to improve services and business process efficiency in public and private sectors of Bangladesh. With this aim, we have conducted extensive literature survey. At the end of this attempt, we have come to the conclusion that the potential use of this technology includes RFID chipped passports, human implants, item-level tagging, inventory tracking and access control systems. RFID technology is at its early stage of adoption in Bangladesh with a few business applications and pilot studies. However, when tags begin to be associated with individuals, privacy is threatened. RFID is a new type of threat to personal information and must be treated as such; indeed, it must be recognized that existing privacy legislation is not adequate. This paper also explores some current and emerging applications of RFID in Bangladesh and examines the challenges including privacy and ethical issues arising from its use, as well as addressing potential means of handling those issues.

Intelligent Load Shedding Using TCP/IP for Smart Grids  [PDF]
Muhammad Qamar Raza, Muhammad Ali, Nauman Tareen, Waheed ur Rehman, Asadullah Khan, Azam Ul Asar
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2012.46053
Abstract: Computerized power management system with fast and optimal communication network overcomes all major discrepancies of undue or inadequate load relief that were present in old conventional systems. This paper presents the basic perception and methodology of modern and true intelligent load shedding scheme in micro grids topology by employing TCP/IP protocol for fast and intelligent switching. The network understudy performs load management and power distribution intelligently in a unified network. Generated power is efficiently distributed among local loads through fast communication system of server in the form of source and clients in the form of loads through TCP/IP. The efficient use of information between server and clients enables to astutely control the load shedding in a power system of micro grids system. The processing time of above stated system comes out to be 10 ms faster than others which ensure very less delay as compared to conventional methods. The Micro Grids system operating through TCP/IP control has been implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK and results have been verified.
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