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OALib Journal期刊

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Characterization of Water Melon (Citrullus lanatus) Genotypes under High Salinity Regime  [PDF]
Mujahid Ali, C. M. Ayyub, Muhammad Rashid Shaheen, Rashad Waseem Khan Qadri, Imran Khan, Muhammad Azam, Naheed Akhtar
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.619317
Abstract: For horticultural crops and especially for vegetables, salinity is dilemma. It is the most limiting factor for plant growth and development by producing reactive oxygen species and ultimately oxidative stress. In the present study, the screening of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thanb. Mavs.) Cultivars was observed for salt tolerance. Four salinity levels (1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6 dS·m-1 NaCl) and six cultivars (Crimson, Charleston Gray, Anarkali, Chairman, Sugar Baby and Champion) tested for screening. It was observed that all morphological attributes and ionic contents were severely affected. But it was revealed by statistical analysis that Charleston Gray was affected least while Champion was most salt sensitive cultivar due to oxidative stress and ionic toxicity. It is concluded that different genotypes under consideration vary in their ability to tolerate salt stress.
Enhancing the Salt Tolerance Potential of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) by Exogenous Application of Salicylic Acid  [PDF]
C. M. Ayyub, Mujahid Ali, Muhammad Rashid Shaheen, Rashad Waseem Khan Qadri, Imran Khan, M. Muzammil Jahangir, Karim Yar Abbasi, Shagufta Kamal, Muhammad Zain
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.619318
Abstract: Salicylic acid (SA) is a vital plant growth regulator providing promising role in plant development and adopts defense mechanism to abiotic stresses. Salinity is the most limiting abiotic factor for plant development and growth changes in watermelon by producing reactive oxygen species and ultimately oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to investigate the mechanism involved in salt stress alleviation in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thanb. Mavs.) through the foliar application of salicylic acid. Watermelon cv. Charleston Gray was grown under moderate saline regime of 3 ds·m-1 NaCl and sprayed with salicylic acid with four level (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mmol/L) compared along with control. SA @ 5.0 mmol/L was found to be very effective in mitigation of salt stress. SA was found to be very effective in alleviation of salinity stress by produced antioxidants and acted as osmo-regulator.
Study of Efficacy of Various Split Applications of Inorganic Nitrogen on Potato Crop  [PDF]
Choudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Shoaib Ur Reman, Rashad Waseem Khan Qadri, Muhammad Azam, Kareem Yar Abbasi, Zia Ullah Khan, Muhammad Rashid Shaheen, Muhammad Ali, Mujahid Hussain Leghari, Tehmina Asghar
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104386
Abstract:
Series of experiments have been conducted to find the optimized dose and efficacy of nitrogen to fulfill the requirements of plant at each level by making split doses. Being most important macro nutrient, afield trial was conducted to study the effect of without applying nitrogen (control) single nitrogen (N) application at planting time on yield and nitrogen uptake of potato in comparison to various split applications. Data were collected about plants vegetative growth, total yield and qualitative factors (TSS, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and protein percentage in tuber). Experimental design used was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) having seven treatments with three replications. Data were analyzed by using standard statistical techniques. Overall, qualitative characters of tubers and yield enhanced with split nitrogen application as compared to all nitrogen applied once at planting time whereas, there was no significant difference between tuber nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and protein contents.
Evaluation of Different Radish (Raphanus sativus) Genotypes under Different Saline Regimes  [PDF]
C. M. Ayyub, Muhammad Rashid Shaheen, Samad Raza, Muhammad Sarwar Yaqoob, Rashad Waseem Khan Qadri, Muhammad Azam, M. Awais Ghani, Imran Khan, Naheed Akhtar
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.76084
Abstract: An effective and simple screening technique for identification of salt tolerant and salt sensitive radish genotypes was observed. Sand is used as potting media. Six genotypes of radish were used for screening against four salinity levels (0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 dS/m-1). Twenty days old seedlings of radish were salinized with salt solution (NaCl). Morphological, physiological and ionic parameters were studied. Radish genotypes Laal-Pari and 40 Days executed the best performance in all the measured attributes and categorized as salt tolerant genotype while Green Neck was the poorest in retaining normal functioning at higher salinity levels thus grouped under salt sensitive cultivar.
EXAFS Studies of Ruthenium Based Double Perovskite ALaMnRuO6 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba)  [PDF]
Rubina Shaheen, Javaid Bashir, Muhammad Nasir Khan
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.31004
Abstract: Room and liquid nitrogen temperatures Mn K-edge extended X-ray fine structure (EXAFS) studies were carried out on powder samples of ALaMnRuO6 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) perovskites. The EXAFS analysis of Mn K-edge spectra showed MnO6 octahedra are distorted. Among the three perovskites, the polyhedral distortion is highest for SrLaMnRuO6 (Δ = 1.4 × 10–3). For CaLaMnRuO6 (Δ = 0.5 × 10–3) and BaLaMnRuO6, (Δ = 0.7 × 10–3), the smaller values of distortion parameters indicate that the MnO6 octahedra are relatively regular and undistorted in the latter two systems. In SrLaMnRuO6, MnO6 distortion appears to be of orthorhombic (Q2) type whereas for CaLaMnRuO6 and BaLaMnRuO6, the distortion is of tetragonal or Q3 type. The Mn-O distances as determined from the EXAFS measurements, increases with the increase in the size of the divalent cation. No structural changes occurred in the local environment around Mn atom when the temperature was lowered from room to liquid nitrogen temperature.
STATUS OF FACE-TO-FACE INSTRUCTION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION AT AIOU
Muhammad RASHID
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2009,
Abstract: Face-to-face contact is one of the strategies used in the teaching learning process in distance education. It is a means of alleviating the problems of isolationism, which the distance learner faces. Apart from serving to supplement or complement teaching, face-to-face contact bring together both the learner and the teacher to interact socially. In this paper, the status of face-to-face instruction in distance education is highlighted. Conditions under which it may be effective and made to contribute towards the goals of distance education are examined; finally, suggestions are given as to the future direction of face-to-face instruction as a component of distance education.
ISSUES AND PROBLEMS IN DISTANCE EDUCATION
Nadia RASHID,Muhammad RASHID
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2011,
Abstract: Distance education and its relationship to emerging computer technologies have together offered many promises to the field of education. In practice however, the combination often false short of what it attempts to accomplish some of the short comings are due to problems with the technology; others have more to do with administration, instructional methods, or students. This article provides decision maker with some trends that affect distance education and thus enable them to plan accordingly. The issues and problems are organized into categories as they pertain to students and enrollment, faculty members, academics, technology, the economy, and distance education. All such issues and problems were identified during an extensive review of current literature in the field.
ISSUES AND PROBLEMS IN DISTANCE EDUCATION
Nadia RASHID,Muhammad RASHID
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2012,
Abstract: Distance education and its relationship to emerging computer technologies have together offered many promises to the field of education. In practice however, the combination often false short of what it attempts to accomplish some of the short comings are due to problems with the technology; others have more to do with administration, instructional methods, or students. This article provides decision maker with some trends that affect distance education and thus enable them to plan accordingly. The issues and problems are organized into categories as they pertain to students and enrollment, faculty members, academics, technology, the economy, and distance education. All such issues and problems were identified during an extensive review of current literature in the field.
The Shadow Protocol: A More Optimized Version of Gnutella
Muhammad Rashid,Khalid Rashid
Information Technology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: This study presents an analysis of the Shadow protocol, a type of peer-to-peer networking model that currently provides decentralized file-sharing capabilities to its users. The shadow protocol has been designed to be a more optimized version of the Gnutella protocol. Initially, the study explains the basics of the peer-to-peer networking and then compares the two types of this networking standard: centralized and decentralized. The shadow protocol is classified as a decentralized model. The Napster and Gnutella protocols are briefly described as well. A detailed description of the Shadow protocol is presented. And a discussion is provided which proves the Shadow protocol to be a more optimized version of the Gnutella protocol.
Survey of the Attitude of Physicians towards Establishing and Maintaining a Peritoneal Dialysis Program
Souqiyyeh Muhammad,Shaheen Faissal
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2006,
Abstract: In an attempt to evaluate the attitude of physicians towards establishing and maintaining a peritoneal dialysis (PD) program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), we sent a questionnaire to 160 physicians; the heads of the 148 active dialysis centers in the KSA and 12 other consultants working in these centers. This covered decision makers in 109 centers (73.6%) in the Ministry of Health (MOH), 18 (12.2%) in Governmental-non-MOH centers, and 21 (14.2 %) in private hospitals that, together, care for a population of more than 7300 patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) and 559 on PD. The study was performed between September and December 2005. A total of 145 of the 160 physicians (90.6%) from 141 dialysis centers (95.2%) answered the questionnaire. There were 81 respondents (56.3%) who believed that follow-up of the PD patients should be available in all the dialysis centers, 80 (55.2%) would like to have a PD clinic at their centers, and only 20 (13.8%) had PD clinics in their centers. However, 93 (66.4%) respondents did not request from the administration of their hospitals to open a PD clinic and 62 (44.6%) admitted to having no expertise in managing the patients on PD, while 53 (38.1%) claimed that they did not have enough space in their dialysis centers to start a PD program. Regarding training and expertise, 57 (40.7%), 58 (43.3%), 48 (35.6%) and 72 (52.9%) physicians had training in continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD), intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD), automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) or continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD), and acute PD, respectively. The comparisons between the health sectors in the KSA showed that MOH had significantly less active PD programs, and this reflected tremendously on the knowledge of the staff. Our survey indicates that the current practices concerning the PD programs in the KSA are modest, and that a new strategy is required to spread this modality of therapy horizontally in all the dialysis centers, and vertically by introducing the latest technologies in the field of PD, such as automated PD machines and connectology. There is also a need to increase the awareness of physicians about the benefits and applicability of PD. National guidelines and training are indispensable and cannot be overemphasized to improve this service, especially in the MOH hospitals.
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