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Competency Based Nursing Curriculum: Establishing the Standards for Nursing Competencies in Higher Education  [PDF]
Olfat A. Salem, Ahmad E. Aboshaiqah, Murad A. Mubaraki, Isabelita N. Pandaan
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104952
Abstract:
Competency is the basic standard for all healthcare professionals when providing care to recipients. The practice of good nursing begins primarily in the study of the nursing program and in the preparation of a nurse with high efficiency in nursing skills. This paper presents the concept of nursing competencies for Saudi nursing and its importance in implementing the national transition program 20/30, and the nursing competencies framework related to the graduate of the Bachelor of Nursing and the methods used in response to the needs of the academic and educational environment, and the stages to develop a competency-based approach.
Inhibition of trypsin expression in Lutzomyia longipalpis using RNAi enhances the survival of Leishmania
Mauricio RV Sant'Anna, Hector Diaz-Albiter, Murad Mubaraki, Rod J Dillon, Paul A Bates
Parasites & Vectors , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-2-62
Abstract: Infections of Lutzomyia longipalpis with Leishmania mexicana were studied and these showed that infected sand flies produced less trypsin-like enzyme activity during blood meal digestion when compared to uninfected controls. RNA interference was used to inhibit trypsin 1 gene expression by micro-injection into the thorax, as trypsin 1 is the major blood meal induced trypsin activity in the sand fly midgut. Injection of specific double stranded RNA reduced trypsin 1 expression as assessed by RT-PCR and enzyme assays, and also led to increased numbers of parasites in comparison with mock-injected controls. Injection by itself was observed to have an inhibitory effect on the level of infection, possibly through stimulation of a wound repair or immune response by the sand fly.Leishmania mexicana was shown to be able to modulate trypsin secretion by Lutzomyia longipalpis to its own advantage, and direct inhibition of trypsin gene expression led to increased parasite numbers in the midguts of infected flies. Successful application of RNA interference methodology to Leishmania-infected sand flies now opens up the use of this technique to study a wide range of sand fly genes and their role in the parasite-vector interaction.Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies are vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in South America [1]. Traditionally known as a disease of rural communities, visceral leishmaniasis has become increasingly widespread and urbanised, with approximately 74% of Brazilian states recording indigenous cases in recent years [2]. Lu. longipalpis is also an important and widely used permissive experimental host, capable of being infected with a wide range of Leishmania species under laboratory conditions [3]. Both sexes are plant feeders, but only adult female flies transmit disease, they ingest blood from mammals to obtain the protein necessary for egg production and maturation. During an infective blood meal, Leishmania amastigotes from an infected mammalian host are inges
An Overview of Conventional and Non-Conventional Water Resources in Arid Region: Assessment and Constrains of the United Arab Emirates (UAE)  [PDF]
Ahmed A. Murad
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.22020
Abstract: The aridity, population growth, agriculture and industrial activities threaten the water resources in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In UAE, groundwater quantity is reduced and its quality is also deteriorated due to the scanty of rainfall and over pumping for different uses. The deficit of groundwater is met by desalinated water and reused of treated wastewater. Agricultural activities have negative impacts on water resources and this causes reduction of groundwater quality as the agriculture the main land use in the UAE and it accounts for more than 70% of groundwater use. The treated wastewater is an alternative source for agricultural activities. To improve the current water situation, a national water resources strategy has been prepared and imple-mented to assist in achieve this target and maintain the country’s water security. This paper intends to give an overview of water resources in the UAE with emphasis on challenges facing the management of these resources.
Inverse Nonnegativity of Tridiagonal M-Matrices under Diagonal Element-Wise Perturbation  [PDF]
Mohamed A. Ramadan, Mahmoud M. Abu Murad
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2015.52004
Abstract: One of the most important properties of M-matrices is element-wise non-negative of its inverse. In this paper, we consider element-wise perturbations of tridiagonal M-matrices and obtain bounds on the perturbations so that the non-negative inverse persists. The largest interval is given by which the diagonal entries of the inverse of tridiagonal M-matrices can be perturbed without losing the property of total nonnegativity. A numerical example is given to illustrate our findings.
The Problems of Rebuilding a State in Iraq 2003-2015  [PDF]
Murad A. Abbas, Radhi S. Jassam
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2015.54026
Abstract: The process of rebuilding the new state in Iraq has faced many internal and external problems. This study is going to focus on the internal problems; they are represented by the problem of national identity, setting the basis of the new Iraqi state, democracy, federalism, national reconciliation and governmental corruption. We selected those problems because we agreed with the consensus among Iraqi academic & political forces on attributing the continuity of instability & the increasing number of human casualties in Iraq to those specific problems. So, we think that solving those problems in accordance with strong national laws will lead to secure the building of Iraqi democratic state capable of making peaceful coexistence among its components based on their public acceptance to principles of liberty, citizenship, equality, pluralism and the separation of powers.
Generating Totally Positive Toeplitz Matrix from an Upper Bidiagonal Matrix  [PDF]
Mohamed A. Ramadan, Mahmoud M. Abu Murad
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2015.54014
Abstract: In this paper, we construct one of the forms of totally positive Toeplitz matrices from upper or lower bidiagonal totally nonnegative matrix. In addition, some properties related to this matrix involving its factorization are presented.
The foundation of the theory of the universe dark energy and its nature  [PDF]
Murad Shibli
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.33023
Abstract: Surprisingly recent astronomical observations have provided strong evidence that our universe is not only expanding, but also is expanding at an accelerating rate. This paper pre- sents a basis of the theory of universe space- time dark energy, a solution of Einstein’s cosmological constant problem, physical interpretation of universe dark energy and Einstein’s cosmological constant Lambda and its value ( = 0.29447 × 10-52 m-2), values of universe dark energy density 1.2622 × 10-26 kg/m3 = 6.8023 GeV, universe critical density 1.8069 × 10-26 kg/m3 = 9.7378 GeV, universe matter density 0.54207 × 10-26 kg/m3 = 2.9213 GeV, and universe radiation density 2.7103 × 10-31 kg/m3 = 1.455 MeV. The interpretation in this paper is based on geometric modeling of space-time as a perfect four- dimensional continuum cosmic fluid and the momentum generated by the time. In this modeling time is considered as a mechanical variable along with other variables and treated on an equal footing. In such a modeling, time is considered to have a mechanical nature so that the momentum associated with it is equal to the negative of the universe total energy. Since the momentum associated with the time as a mechanical variable is equal to the negative system total energy, the coupling in the time and its momentum leads to maximum increase in the space-time field with 70.7% of the total energy. Moreover, a null paraboloid is obtained and interpreted as a function of the momentum generated by time. This paper presents also an interpretation of space-time tri-dipoles, gravity field waves, and gravity carriers (the gravitons). This model suggests that the space-time has a polarity and is composed of dipoles which are responsible for forming the orbits and storing the space-time energy-momentum. The tri-di- poles can be unified into a solo space-time dipole with an angle of 45 degrees. Such a result shows that the space-time is not void, on the contrary, it is full of conserved and dynamic energy-momentum structure. Furthermore, the gravity field waves is modeled and assumed to be carried by the gravitons which move in the speed of light. The equivalent mass of the graviton (rest mass) is found to be equal to 0.707 of the equivalent mass of the light photons. Such a result indicates that the lightest particle (up to the author’s knowledge) in the nature is the graviton and has an equivalent mass equals to 2.5119 x 10-52 kg. Based on the fluidic nature of dark energy, a fourth law of thermodynamics is proposed and a new physical interpretation of Kepler’s Laws are presented. Additionally,
In Vivo Dynamic Image Characterization of Brain Tumor Growth Using Singular Value Decomposition and Eigenvalues  [PDF]
Murad Shibli
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2011.43026
Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic image approach to characterize the growth of brain cancer invasion of tumor gliomas cells using singular value decomposi-tion (SVD) technique. Such a dynamic image is identi-fied by the white and grey matter displayed by mag-netic resonance (MR) images of the patient brain taken at different times. SVD components and prop-erties have been analyzed for different brain images. It is figured out that the growth of tumor cells is quantized by the SVD eigenvalues. Since SVD geo-metrically interprets an ellipsoid transformation, then the higher the eigenvalues, the more of tumor growth is. In vivo SVD dynamic imaging offers a more pre-dictive model to assess the tumor therapy than con-ventional technologies. Furthermore, an efficient dy-namic white-black indicator of the tumor growth rate is constructed based on the change in the diagonal eigenvalues matrices of two MR images taken at dif-ferent times. Finally, SVD image processing results are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the applied approach that can be implemented for each individual patient.
Unified Modeling Approach of Kinematics, Dynamics and Control of a Free-Flying Space Robot Interacting with a Target Satellite  [PDF]
Murad Shibli
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2011.21002
Abstract: In this paper a unified control-oriented modeling approach is proposed to deal with the kinematics, linear and angular momentum, contact constraints and dynamics of a free-flying space robot interacting with a target satellite. This developed approach combines the dynamics of both systems in one structure along with holonomic and nonholonomic constraints in a single framework. Furthermore, this modeling allows consid-ering the generalized contact forces between the space robot end-effecter and the target satellite as internal forces rather than external forces. As a result of this approach, linear and angular momentum will form holonomic and nonholonomic constraints, respectively. Meanwhile, restricting the motion of the space robot end-effector on the surface of the target satellite will impose geometric constraints. The proposed momentum of the combined system under consideration is a generalization of the momentum model of a free-flying space robot. Based on this unified model, three reduced models are developed. The first reduced dynamics can be considered as a generalization of a free-flying robot without contact with a target satellite. In this re-duced model it is found that the Jacobian and inertia matrices can be considered as an extension of those of a free-flying space robot. Since control of the base attitude rather than its translation is preferred in certain cases, a second reduced model is obtained by eliminating the base linear motion dynamics. For the purpose of the controller development, a third reduced-order dynamical model is then obtained by finding a common solution of all constraints using the concept of orthogonal projection matrices. The objective of this approach is to design a controller to track motion trajectory while regulating the force interaction between the space robot and the target satellite. Many space missions can benefit from such a modeling system, for example, autonomous docking of satellites, rescuing satellites, and satellite servicing, where it is vital to limit the con-tact force during the robotic operation. Moreover, Inverse dynamics and adaptive inverse dynamics control-lers are designed to achieve the control objectives. Both controllers are found to be effective to meet the specifications and to overcome the un-actuation of the target satellite. Finally, simulation is demonstrated by to verify the analytical results.
Dynamics and Controllability of Financial Derivatives: Towards Stabilization the Global Financial Systems Crisis  [PDF]
Murad Shibli
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2012.21007
Abstract: This paper presents a new dynamic approach to control and stabilize the global financial derivatives. Since 2007 the Global Financial Economy has been experiencing what is said to be the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression in the 1930’s. The Bank of International Settlements (BIS) in Switzerland has recently reported that global outstanding derivatives have reached 1.14 quadrillion dollars: $548 Trillion in listed credit derivatives plus $596 trillion in notional OTC derivatives. Although the financial derivatives are governed by the celebrated parabolic partial differential Black- Scholes formula, but it is not clear how derivatives are controlled and stabilized. This paper investigates equilibrium, stability and control of financial derivatives. The analysis is based on the discretization of Balck-Scholes formula to a system of linear ordinary differential equations. It is found that such financial derivatives experience a drift which hardly can be brought to equilibrium state. Controllability and observability conditions of financial systems are proposed. Moreover, stability of such derivatives is tested by the virtue of Liapunov methodology. It is figured out that financial system should satisfy the quadratic form which can be interpreted as a conservation condition of financial instruments. Furthermore, a financial state-feedback control system is proposed. Such analysis shows that the financial derivatives system needs to be injected with cash to maintain its stability. These results may explain the shortfall of li-quidity needed to substitute for the 1.14 quadrillion dollars bubble. Finally, examples and simulation results are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
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