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Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Lipid Profile and Plasma Glucose of Preeclamptic Women in Ibadan, Nigeria  [PDF]
Ayobola Abimbola Sonuga, Modupe Fisayo Asaolu, Oyebola Oluwagbemiga Sonuga
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104410
Abstract:
Biochemical metabolites are implicated in preeclampsia, which include elevated plasma concentration of Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLC), total lipids and reduced High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDLC) concentrations and significant reductions in fasting plasma glucose, and serum insulin homeostasis model of assessment. Vitamin D supplementation seems to be a possible target for intervention and possible improved pregnancy outcomes in preeclampsia. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the effects of Vitamin D supplementation on the Lipid Profile, and random plasma glucose levels of preeclamptic women in Ibadan, Nigeria. This interventional study was carried out at the Antenatal clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments of University College Hospital Ibadan and Adeoyo Maternity Clinic, Yemetu, Ibadan, Nigeria. 120 pregnant women aged 18 to 35 were recruited; 40 normotensive pregnant women served as control; 40 randomly chosen preeclamptic women were placed on oral vitamin D supplement of 1000 IU/day for 8 weeks and 40 preeclamptic women were given no supplement. Blood samples were taken at study baseline (22 weeks), after 8 weeks of supplementation (3rd trimester) and 3 to 5 days postpartum in all groups to quantify serum vitamin D, random glucose and Lipid profile. Vitamin D was quantified by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), glucose status by glucose oxidase method and lipid profile by standard methods. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) soft version 17.0 and subjected to One way analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Student’s t test. Results showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in levels of TG, LDLC, random plasma glucose and a decrease (p < 0.05) in HDLC levels in the preeclamptic groups when compared with normotensive women in second and third trimester. After vitamin D supplementation, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in Total Cholesterol (TC), TG, LDLC levels and an increase in HDLC (p < 0.05) (4.49 ± 0.38, 1.51 ± 0.22, 3.45 ± 0.57, 1.87 ± 0.29) vs. (5.96 ± 0.49, 2.30 ± 0.20, 5.90 ± 0.36, 1.07 ± 0.28) respectively. Random plasma glucose level was reduced (5.7 ± 0.5 vs. 6.01 ± 0.43), though not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Vitamin D supplementation is important in ameliorating dyslipidemia associated with preeclampsia.
Practical Approach and Beneficial Effects in the Area of Speech Improvement
Moji Oyebola
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The lack of adequate and systematic approach to speech instruction has always been a problem facing teaching of the hearing impaired. The study describes principles and methods in the context of overall speech program at a school for the hearing-impaired in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. In describing an interdisciplinary approach, consisting of specific program design, the writer`s major goal is to provide the reader with a practical method of speech instruction that may be applied to any program. Preliminary data which indicate this program has a very beneficial effect in the area of speech observations show that teacher`s attitude toward speech instruction have also been positively affected.
HIV/AIDS and family support systems: A situation analysis of people living with HIV/AIDS in Lagos State
A E Oluwagbemiga
SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance) , 2007,
Abstract: Current statistics about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria do not reveal the broader social and economic impacts of the disease on the family.The study therefore primarily aimed to address the socio-economic effects of HIV infection on individuals and their families.The study was carried out in Lagos State. In-depth interviews were employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the state, while four focus group discussions were conducted to elicit information from people affected by AIDS about the socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on families in Nigeria. From the survey, among people living with HIV/AIDS, 66% of females and males were in the age group 21-40 years, while 10% were older people above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that as HIV/AIDS strikes at parents, grand parents are assuming responsibility for bringing up the children of the infected persons and the orphans of those killed by the virus. It was striking that some of the older caregivers could not meet the requirement of these children.They are often forced to work more than they would have, or borrow in order to cope with the needs of these extra mouths. Some of the infected people have sold their properties to enable them to cope with the economic effects of the virus, while their children have had to drop out of school, since they could not afford the school fees and other related expenses. It was suggested that PLWHA should be economically empowered with adequate medical treatment, in order to reduce the impact of the disease on the family.
Gender inequities in sexually transmitted infections: implications for HIV infection and control in Lagos State, Nigeria
Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga Adeyemi
Infectious Disease Reports , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/idr.2011.e7
Abstract: Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multi-stage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For qualitative data, four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted to collect information from stakeholders within the study population, while In-depth interview was employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the State. The data collected were subjected to basic demographic analytical techniques. Combination of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were employed. Information from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were transcribed and organized under broad headings that depict different aspects of the discussions. Majority of the respondents interviewed did not inform their partners about their infection in the study area. It was also discovered that stigmatization did not allow some women to disclose their status to their sexual partners. Some of the HIV-positive patients interviewed agreed that they did not attend the health facilities to treat the STI’s before they were finally confirmed positive. The study hypothesis revealed that communication between partners about STI’s was associated with an increase in risk reduction behaviour. The paper concluded that there is need for more information and education on communication about STI’s between the sexual partners; to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted diseases within the nation.
Assessment of the Exact Solutions of the Space and Time Fractional Benjamin-Bona-Mahony Equation via the -Expansion Method, Modified Simple Equation Method, and Liu’s Theorem
Olusola Kolebaje,Oyebola Popoola
ISRN Mathematical Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/217184
Abstract: Exact travelling wave solutions to the space and time fractional Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (BBM) equation defined in the sense of Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative via the expansion and the modified simple equation methods are presented in this paper. A fractional complex transformation was applied to turn the fractional BBM equation into an equivalent integer order ordinary differential equation. New complex type travelling wave solutions to the space and time fractional BBM equation were obtained with Liu’s theorem. The modified simple equation method is not effective for constructing solutions to the fractional BBM equation. 1. Introduction Nonlinear partial differential equations arise in a large number of physics, mathematics, and engineering problems. In the Soliton theory, the study of exact solutions to these nonlinear equations plays a very germane role, as they provide much information about the physical models they describe. In recent times, it has been found that many physical, chemical, and biological processes are governed by nonlinear partial differential equations of noninteger or fractional order [1–4]. Various powerful methods have been employed to construct exact travelling wave solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations. These methods include the inverse scattering transform [5], the Backlund transform [6, 7], the Darboux transform [8], the Hirota bilinear method [9], the tanh-function method [10, 11], the sine-cosine method [12], the exp-function method [13], the generalized Riccati equation [14], the homogenous balance method [15], the first integral method [16, 17], the expansion method [18, 19], and the modified simple equation method [20–22]. In this paper, we apply the expansion method and the modified simple equation method to construct travelling wave solutions to the space and time fractional Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (BBM) equation in the sense of Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative via a fractional complex transformation and we further get new complex type solutions to the equation by applying Liu’s theorem [23]. The Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation is of the following form: This equation was introduced in [24] as an improvement of the Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV equation) for modelling long waves of small amplitude in 1 + 1 dimensions. It is used in modelling surface waves of long wavelength in liquids, acoustic gravity waves in compressible fluids, and acoustic waves in anharmonic crystals. Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative of order with respect to is defined as [25] Some useful
THE RELIGIOUS DIVIDE IN THE YORUBA TERMINOLOGY FOR GOD: A LINGUISTIC PERSPECTIVE
Michael A.O. Oyebola
Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies , 2012,
Abstract: This paper has addressed the issue of the reflection of religious affiliation in the use of language. It specifically set out to ascertain whether the use any of the variant, in reference to ‘God’ has any religious connotation. In addition it sought to find out which of the variants correctly serves as the underlying form of the reduced form ‘ ’. The paper adopted a two-pronged methodological approach, first, through a phonological analysis of consonant deletion in Yoruba, and secondly, through a questionnaire based data collection. The phonological analysis focused specifically on the possibility of the deletion of [r] and [h] in Yoruba. The linguistic analysis showed that the reduced form could not have been derived from the variant with [r] but from that with [h]. The analysis from the results from the questionnaire showed that though the variant is predominant in the language community, the Muslim origin of the variant is not in doubt. The study found that Christians and Muslims use the reduced variant without regard to its decidedly Muslim origin. The paper concluded by observing that linguistics and language use are veritable instruments of breaking down the barriers of religious divide.
The Essential Oil of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden Inhibits Microbial Growth by Inducing Membrane Damage  [PDF]
Oluwagbemiga Sewanu Soyingbe, Adebola Oyedeji, Albert Kortze Basson, Andy Rowland Opoku
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2013.41002
Abstract:

Eucalyptus grandis is a medicinal plant which has been indicated by Zulu traditional healer in the treatment of respiratory tract infections, bronchial infections, asthma and cough. The investigation of the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the rationale behind the use of the plant as a cure for these illnesses. Essential oil was hydro-distilled from the fresh leaves and characterised for the chemical constituents and bioactivity. The main constituents of the oil of the E. grandis are α-Pinene (29.69%), p-Cymene (19.89%), 1,8-cineole (12.80%), α-Terpineol (6.48%), Borneol (3.48%) and D-Limonene (3.14%). The essential oil of E. grandis showed high scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals, and was actively against 13 of the 16 organisms tested with the MIC ranging from 0.625 mg - 5.0 mg/ml; the MBC value ranged from 2.5 mg - 10 mg/ml. The essential oil also inhibited the growth of 7 of the 8 antibiotic resistant bacteria tested, with MIC ranging from 5 mg/ml - 10

Ashman phenomenon
OS Ogah, EH Aikhuele, BT Oyebola
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2005,
Abstract:
The importance of O – level grades in medical school admission: the University of Ado–Ekiti experience
D.D.O Oyebola
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2006,
Abstract: This paper describes the procedures used in the admission of the first set of Medical Students into the newly established College of Medicine, University of Ado – Ekiti. Two groups of students were admitted, namely, those admitted on the basis of their JAMB scores alone (five students) and those admitted on the basis of a combination of JAMB scores and O’ level grades in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics. In the latter group, the JAMB scores and O’ level grades were given equal weighting (50% of mark obtainable each) and all applicants were ranked on the basis of their combined scores. The 127 top scorers based on this ranking were given a written interview test and an oral interview. At the end of the exercise, 40 candidates were admitted. Eventually, 31 of this group and four out of the five candidates admitted with JAMB scores alone registered for 100 Level courses. A comparison of the academic performance of the two groups of students in science and General Studies courses at 100 Level showed that all students in the JAMB and O’ level group were far better than students in the JAMB alone group. Indeed, the former group had outstanding performance while 50% of the latter group could not cope. It was concluded that the use of O’ level grades is very important and effective in selecting academically sound students and should be used in admissions into Medical School. (Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 9: 15 – 21, January 2006)
Effect of adrenaline on glucose uptake by the canine larger bowel
ARA Alada, TD Fagbohun, DDO Oyebola
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2001,
Abstract: The effect of adrenaline on the glucose uptake by the large intestine was studied on a fasted, anaesthetized dog. A vein draining a segment of the colon was cannulated for blood flow measurement and blood samples were obtained for measurement of glucose content of the arterial and venous blood from the colonic segment. Glucose uptake was calculated as the product of colonic blood flow and arterio-venous glucose difference {(A-V) glucose}. When adrenaline (5ìg/kg) was injected, glucose uptake by the colon increased by about 150%. This increase is much less than increases of 400% and 700% observed in upper jejunium and terminal ileum respectively in previous studies. However, the resting glucose uptake of (28.28 ± 20mg/min) of the colon is higher than that of the small intestine (17.77 ± 1.56 mg/min). We suggest from our studies that lower glucose uptake in the colon may well indicate a lower metabolic activity in the colon. From the results we concluded that the colon is involved in glucose homeostasis and that the colonic increase in glucose uptake in response to adrenaline is mediated by alpha and beta adrenergic receptors
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