Bioavailability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) is known to affect marine phytoplankton physiology, thus influencing their primary productivity; and it’s of general interest to see how the N or/and P additions affect the differently cell-sized phytoplankton assemblages. Data from the northern South China Sea showed that P addition increased up to 6 times of total chl a content within 24 h in the estuarine water; and N+P addition increased more than 20 times of chl a within 144 h in the pelagic water. The P addition powered 18.0% and 149% increase in the carbon fixation of larger (>3 μm) and smaller (<3 μm) cell assemblies from the estuarine water, respectively; while the limited effects were observed between them in the pelagic water. Additions of N and P interactively increased the carbon fixation of both cell-sized assemblies in the pelagic water, but only small cell-sized fraction in the estuarine water. Moreover, the estuarine phytoplankton cells appeared to respond faster to the nutrient additions than the pelagic ones, and the smaller cells respond to a greater extent than their larger counterparts in the estuarine water but not in the pelagic water.
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Based on the theory for the turbulence and the Rytov method,
the propagation formulas of the scintillation index and the mean square
angle-of-arrival fluctuation for the beam propagation in atmospheric turbulence
have been derived respectively. The propagation properties of the two turbulence
effects have been investigated, and the effects of the characteristic
parameters of turbulence and the beam parameters have been discussed. The
results show that the variation of the two turbulence effects depends on the
structure constant of the refractive index fluctuations Cn2, the inner scale of
the turbulence l0, the waist width of source beam w0 and the wave length λ.
Moreover, there are two parameters including Cn2 and l0 which show more
significant effects in atmosphere. Consequently, a new method for determining
the characteristics parameters of the turbulence by using the measurement of
the scintillation index and the angle-of-arrival fluctuation has been proposed.