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Prognostic Value of the Ocular Trauma Score in Traumatic Open Globe Injuries in the Philippines: A Five-Year Retrospective Study —Prognostic Value of the Ocular Trauma Score in Open Globe Injuries  [PDF]
Raymond Nelson C. Regalado, Ruben Lim Bon Siong, Archimedes Lee D. Agahan, Anthony F. Felipe
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104224
Abstract:
PURPOSE: To determine the prognostic value of the Ocular Trauma Score (OTS) in patients with traumatic open globe injuries. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with traumatic open globe injuries seen in a tertiary eye center in the Philippines from 2008 to 2013. Patients with traumatic open globe injuries who were at least 18 years of age upon first consult and with documented visual acuity at the first, third and sixth months of follow up were included in the study. The following data were collected: age, sex, occupation, manner of injury, type of injury, location of injury, presence of globe rupture, endophthalmitis, perforation, retinal detachment and afferent pupillary defect, and visual acuity (VA) at presentation, month 1, month 3 and month 6. The OTS was computed from the available data. RESULTS: A total of 114 records were included. Open-globe (OG) injuries were more common in males (86.8%), between 18 - 39 y/o (64.9%) and who were manual workers (74.6%). Most were occupation-related (64%), seen within 1 - 3 days (55.3%), and treated both medically and surgically (92.1%). The most common type of OG injury was a penetrating laceration (82.5%), had an initial VA of 4/200 to light perception (57.9%), had no afferent pupillary defect (APD) (84.2%), and was located at zone I (73.7%). The most common OTS anatomical factor seen, when present, was an APD (15.8%). In all months, there was a significant positive correlation between OTS score and visual acuity. CONCLUSION: The OTS appeared to predict visual outcome as early as the first month post-injury, although correlation still exists at the 3rd and 6th months.
Eigenvector Weighting Function in Face Recognition
Pang Ying Han,Andrew Teoh Beng Jin,Lim Heng Siong
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/521935
Abstract: Graph-based subspace learning is a class of dimensionality reduction technique in face recognition. The technique reveals the local manifold structure of face data that hidden in the image space via a linear projection. However, the real world face data may be too complex to measure due to both external imaging noises and the intra-class variations of the face images. Hence, features which are extracted by the graph-based technique could be noisy. An appropriate weight should be imposed to the data features for better data discrimination. In this paper, a piecewise weighting function, known as Eigenvector Weighting Function (EWF), is proposed and implemented in two graph based subspace learning techniques, namely Locality Preserving Projection and Neighbourhood Preserving Embedding. Specifically, the computed projection subspace of the learning approach is decomposed into three partitions: a subspace due to intra-class variations, an intrinsic face subspace, and a subspace which is attributed to imaging noises. Projected data features are weighted differently in these subspaces to emphasize the intrinsic face subspace while penalizing the other two subspaces. Experiments on FERET and FRGC databases are conducted to show the promising performance of the proposed technique.
Cost Effective Options for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission Reduction in the Power Sector for Developing Economies — A Case Study in Sabah, Malaysia
Siong Lee Koh,Yun Seng Lim,Stella Morris
Energies , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/en4050780
Abstract: With their increasing shares of global emissions developing economies are increasingly being pressured to assume a greater role in global greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction. Developed countries have invested tremendously in and proclaimed renewable energy (RE) and associated smart power technologies as solutions to meet their energy demands and reduce their GHG emissions at the same time. However, in the developing economies, these technologies may not deliver the desired results because they have their unique characteristics and priorities, which are different from those of the developed world. Many GHG emission reduction technologies are still very expensive and not fully developed. For the developing economies, the adoption threshold may become very high. Therefore, the cost effectiveness and practicality of each technology in reducing GHG emission in the developing economies may be very different from that of the developed economies. In this paper, available RE and other GHG emission reduction technologies are individually considered in a case study on Sabah, one of the 13 states in Malaysia, in order to assess the effects of the individual technologies on GHG emission and electricity cost reductions.
Decoding of Turbo Codes in Symmetric Alpha-Stable Noise
Mohammad Shafieipour,Heng-Siong Lim,Teong-Chee Chuah
ISRN Signal Processing , 2011, DOI: 10.5402/2011/683972
Abstract:
Modified Multilook Cross Correlation (Mlcc) Algorithm for Doppler Centroid Estimation in Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing
Bee Cheng Sew;Yee Kit Chan;Chee-Siong Lim;Tien Sze Lim;Voon Chet Koo
PIER C , 2011, DOI: 10.2528/PIERC11011901
Abstract: The Multilook Cross Correlation (MLCC) is one of the most reliable algorithms used for Doppler ambiguity number estimation of the Doppler centroid parameter. However, the existing MLCC algorithm is only suitable for low contrast scenes. In high contrast scenes, the estimated result is not reliable, and the error is unacceptable. Besides, the Doppler centroid estimation processing time is long and can only be used in offline processing. In this paper, we introduce a modified MLCC algorithm that has better sensitivity which is suitable not only for low contrast scenes, but also for high contrast scenes. In addition, the modified MLCC algorithm can be implemented on parallel signal processing units for better time efficiency. Experiments with RADARSAT-1 data show that the modified algorithm works well in both high and low contrast scenes.
BACE1 inhibitory activity of fungal endophytic extracts from Malaysian medicinal plants
Azzeme Harun, Richard James, Siong Lim, Abu Majeed, Anthony LJ Cole, Kalavathy Ramasamy
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-79
Abstract: Endophytes were isolated from plants collected from Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan and the National Park, Pahang and the extracts were tested for BACE1 inhibition. For investigation of biological activity, the pure endophytic cultures were cultivated for 14 days on PDA plates at 28°C and underwent semipolar extraction with ethyl acetate.Of 212 endophytic extracts (1000 μg/ml), 29 exhibited more than 90% inhibition of BACE1 in the preliminary screening. Four extracts from isolates HAB16R13, HAB16R14, HAB16R18 and HAB8R24 identified as Cytospora rhizophorae were the most active with IC50(BACE1) values of less than 3.0 μg/ml. The most active extract HAB16R13 was shown to non-competitively inhibit BACE1 with Ki value of 10.0 μg/ml. HAB16R13 was considered non-potent against PC-12 and WRL68 (IC50(CT) of 60.0 and 40.0 μg/ml, respectively).This first report on endophytic fungal extract with good BACE1 inhibitory activity demonstrates that more extensive study is required to uncover the potential of endophytes.Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly people, and the fourth most common cause of death in developed countries [1]. It is estimated that about 18 million people worldwide are currently affected by this disease and this figure is projected to double by 2025 with an ageing population [2].Patients diagnosed with AD suffer memory loss, language deterioration, poor judgment and impaired visuospatial capability [3]. At present, there is no cure for AD. Medication for AD only helps slow down progression of the disease so as to improve patients' quality of life. Histopathologically, AD is characterized by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) from phosphorylated tau protein in the neurons and the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaque in the parenchyma of the amygdale, hippocampus and neocortex of the brain [4]. The major component of amyloid plaque is the β-amyloid protein (Aβ), a 39-43 amino acid peptide composed of a portion of the tr
Application of Particle Swarm Optimizer on Load Distribution for Hybrid Network Selection Scheme in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
Yoke Chek Yee,Su Wei Tan,Heng Siong Lim,Su Fong Chien
ISRN Communications and Networking , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/340720
Abstract:
Application of Particle Swarm Optimizer on Load Distribution for Hybrid Network Selection Scheme in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
Yoke Chek Yee,Su Wei Tan,Heng Siong Lim,Su Fong Chien
ISRN Communications and Networking , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/340720
Abstract: Mobile terminal with multiradios is getting common nowadays with the presence of heterogeneous wireless networks such as 3G, WiMAX, and WiFi. That Network selection mechanism plays an important role in ensuring mobile terminals are always connected to the most suitable network. In this paper, we introduce and evaluate the performance of load distribution model to facilitate better network selection. We focus on the optimization of network resource utilization using the particle swarm optimizer (PSO) with the objective to distribute the system load according to the various conditions of the heterogeneous networks in order to achieve minimum system cost. Simulation results showed that the proposed approach outperformed the conventional iterative algorithm by a cost improvement of 7.24% for network size of 1000 mobile terminals using 10 particles. 1. Introduction There has been a drastic and huge development in both mobile technologies such as global system for mobile communications (GSM), general packet radio service (GPRS), and universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) which promise high mobility, wide coverage, but low bandwidth rate, as well as on other wireless technologies such as wireless fidelity (WiFi) and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) which offer faster rates at lower cost but suffered from limited mobility and coverage. The different characteristics of these mobile/wireless technologies help compensating for coverage, mobility, bandwidth, and speed, and this helps meeting the requirements due to the increase of user demands in a complementary manner [1]. It is therefore believed that the future network infrastructure will consist of coverage overlapping of heterogeneous networks [2], where multiradios mobile devices could seamlessly and conveniently access to any network in a ubiquitous manner according to the concept of always best connected (ABC) [3]. The challenge to ubiquitous access to any network lies on an efficient and effective mobility management framework which initially focused on enabling seamless vertical handover across heterogeneous networks due to user mobility. Recently, vertical handover is also considered as proactive means to system performance improvement [4, 5]. Realizing a seamless and ubiquitous network access heavily depends on the second phase in vertical handover process called handover decision, which determines and selects one of the most optimal alternative networks to connect to. The selection of network is usually based on parameters such as signal strength, network conditions,
Autofocus Algorithms Performance Evaluations Using an Integrated SAR Product Simulator and Processor
Tien Sze Lim;Chee-Siong Lim;Voon Chet Koo;Hong-Tat Ewe;Hean-Teik Chuah
PIER B , 2008, DOI: 10.2528/PIERB07122101
Abstract: The design and development of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system for a particular application often requires redesign of software and hardware to optimize the system performance. In addition, evaluations of the performance of existing autofocus and image formation algorithms are required for the SAR system designers to select a most suitable algorithm for a given image quality requirements. This is a time-consuming taskwithout a reconfigurable and comprehensive software package. Thus, a comprehensive SAR integrated simulator and processor software is needed to aid the system designers in optimizing all the system parameters and performance. This paper presents an integrated SAR simulator and processor (iSARSIMP) software package and the performance of three selected SAR autofocus algorithms has been evaluated as examples to demonstrate the usefulness of the iSARSIMP for SAR system designers. In the performance evaluation, simulated and actual SAR raw data were used for further analysis and comparison of the three selected autofocus algorithms.
A Miniature Real-Time Re-Configurable Radar Waveform Synthesizer for UAV Based Radar
Ming Yam Chua;Huey Shen Boey;Chot Hun Lim;Voon Chet Koo;Heng Siong Lim;Yee Kit Chan;Tien Sze Lim
PIER C , 2012, DOI: 10.2528/PIERC12060801
Abstract: Radar waveform synthesizer is a key component in radar system as it determines the best achievable resolution. A popular approach in radar waveform synthesis is the Direct Digital Synthesis approach where the signal is first generated in digital domain and converted into analog signal using a High Speed Digital-to-Analog Converter (HS-DAC). In this paper, a miniature and low cost radar waveform synthesizer is proposed. The synthesizer is targeted for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based radar system applications that require miniaturized equipment due to limited space in aircraft's fuselage. The signal synthesizer has been developed using Altera DE3 development board (Stratix III FPGA) and a custom made dual-channel 420 MSPS HS-DAC board. The proposed system is capable of generating various types of radar waveforms: a) Linear Frequency Modulated (LFM) or pulse, b) Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW), and c) Calibration Tone (Cal-Tone), for use in different types of radar applications. The distinguishing feature of the proposed synthesizer is its capability in reconfiguring the signal properties in real-time. The performance of the synthesizer has been benchmarked with commercially available radar waveform signal synthesizer and comparable performance has been observed.
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