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OALib Journal期刊

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Assessment of Soil Nutrients Limiting Sustainable Potato Production in the Highlands of South-Western Uganda  [PDF]
Robert Muzira, Twaha Basamba, John Steven Tenywa
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104440
Abstract:
Soil fertility management is one of the major strategies for improving potato productivity in the highlands of south-western Uganda. Land belonging to potato farmers is highly fragmented hindering sustainable potato production under small-holder farming systems. Land fragmentation brings a major challenge to small-scale farmers in soil fertility management, increasing costs of production. However, identifying major soil nutrients limiting potato production in the highlands of south-western Uganda is an avenue of applying appropriate soil nutrients to improve potato productivity without degrading the soils. It also assists farmers in investing in the necessary soil nutrients and, hence reducing the costs of production while improving potato productivity. The study indicated that soil potassium was the most single significant soil nutrient limiting potato productivity especially in the fields located on hilltops and far from homesteads. Hence, it was imperative that farmers apply potassium containing fertilizers to minimize potassium depletion but also increase potato productivity. It was also important for farmers to always integrate disease management with soil nutrient management for improved potato productivity.
Linking Soil Conservation in Potato Production Systems in the Highlands of Southwestern Uganda to Gender and Farmer-Market Types  [PDF]
Robert Muzira, John Steven Tenywa, Twaha Basamba
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104422
Abstract:
Rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa develop different livelihood strategies driven by opportunities and constraints encountered in existing biophysical and socioeconomic environments. A study on gender effects under two market linkages on investments in soil conservation innovations in potato production systems was conducted in the highlands of southwestern Uganda. There were significant differences in land size under fallow belonging to Male Headed Households (MHHs) and Female Headed Households (FHHs) with urban and non-urban market linkages (p < 0.05). None the less both FHHs and MHHs had more land under fallow. This was attributed to the trainings farmers obtained in the control of bacterial wilt of potato through integrating fallow period in the potato cropping systems. Under urban and non-urban market linkages, there were no significant differences in percentage distribution of potato fields for MHHs and FHHs without soil conservation structure (p > 0.05). This was attributed to limited land holdings owned by farmers that are intensively cultivated.
Knowledge, attitudes and practices on cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago Hospital, Uganda
Twaha Mutyaba, Francis A Mmiro, Elisabete Weiderpass
BMC Medical Education , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-6-13
Abstract: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a weighted sample of 310 medical workers including nurses, doctors and final year medical students were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. We measured knowledge about cervical cancer: (risk factors, eligibility for screening and screening techniques), attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and practices regarding screening.Response rate was 92% (285). Of these, 93% considered cancer of the cervix a public health problem and knowledge about Pap smear was 83% among respondents. Less than 40% knew risk factors for cervical cancer, eligibility for and screening interval. Of the female respondents, 65% didn't feel susceptible to cervical cancer and 81% had never been screened. Of the male respondents, only 26% had partners who had ever been screened. Only 14% of the final year medical students felt skilled enough to use a vaginal speculum and 87% had never performed a pap smear.Despite knowledge of the gravity of cervical cancer and prevention by screening using a Pap smear, attitudes and practices towards screening were negative. The medical workers who should be responsible for opportunistic screening of women they care for are not keen on getting screened themselves. There is need to explain/understand the cause of these attitudes and practices and identify possible interventions to change them. Medical students leave medical school without adequate skills to be able to effectively screen women for cervical cancer wherever they go to practice. Medical students and nurses training curricula needs review to incorporate practical skills on cervical cancer screening.Cervical cancer is the commonest malignancy of women in Uganda [1,2]. Over 80% of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer in Mulago hospital present with advanced disease, [3,4]. Cervical cancer is largely preventable by effective screening programmes and considerable reduction in cervical cancer incidence and deaths has been achieved in developed
Influences on uptake of reproductive health services in Nsangi community of Uganda and their implications for cervical cancer screening
Twaha Mutyaba, Elisabeth Faxelid, Florence Mirembe, Elisabete Weiderpass
Reproductive Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-4-4
Abstract: We conducted a qualitative study using eight focus group discussions with a total of 82 participants (16 men, 46 women and 20 health workers). We aimed to better understand factors that influence usage of available reproductive health care services and how they would relate to cervical cancer screening, as well as identify feasible interventions to improve cervical cancer screening uptake.Barriers identified after framework analysis included ignorance about cervical cancer, cultural constructs/beliefs about the illness, economic factors, domestic gender power relations, alternative authoritative sources of reproductive health knowledge, and unfriendly health care services. We discuss how these findings may inform future planned screening programmes in the Ugandan context.Knowledge about cervical cancer among Ugandan women is very low. For an effective cervical cancer-screening programme, awareness about cervical cancer needs to be increased. Health planners need to note the power of the various authoritative sources of reproductive health knowledge such as paternal aunts (Sengas) and involve them in the awareness campaign. Cultural and economic issues dictate the perceived reluctance by men to participate in women's reproductive health issues; men in this community are, however, potential willing partners if appropriately informed. Health planners should address the loss of confidence in current health care units, as well as consider use of other cervical cancer screening delivery systems such as mobile clinics/camps.Uganda is a poor country, with a mainly rural population mostly engaged in subsistence farming. Literacy is estimated at about 64 % for men and 47 % for women. Uptake of reproductive health (RH) services is poor, with 23 % contraceptive prevalence, and 38 % skilled attendance at delivery, ten percent postnatal care attendance, and maternal mortality ratio of 505 per 100, 000 live births. Attendance to one antenatal care visit is 90%, but less than 50% c
Evaluation of 'see-see and treat' strategy and role of HIV on cervical cancer prevention in Uganda
Twaha Mutyaba, Florence Mirembe, Sven Sandin, Elisabete Weiderpass
Reproductive Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-7-4
Abstract: Trained nurses examined women not previously screened for cervical cancer using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) in two family planning/post natal clinics in Kampala, Uganda, from February 2007 to August 2008. Women with abnormal visual inspection findings were referred for colposcopic evaluation and HIV testing. Women with precancerous cervical lesions detected at colposcopy were treated mainly by cryotherapy, and were evaluated for treatment outcome after 3 months by a second colposcopy.Of the 5 105 women screened, 834 presented a positive screening test and were referred for colposcopy. Of these 625 (75%) returned for the colposcopic evaluation and were tested for HIV. For the 608 (97.5%) women in the age range 20-60 years, colposcopy revealed 169 women with cervical lesions: 128 had inflammation, 19 had low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), 13 had high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL), 9 had invasive cervical cancer and 2 had inconclusive findings. Detection rates per 1 000 women screened were higher among the older women (41-60 years) compared to women aged 20-40 years. They were accordingly 55% and 20% for inflammation, 10% and 2% for LGSIL, 5% and 2% for HGSIL, 6% and 1% for invasive cervical cancer.Of the 608 women, 103 (16%) were HIV positive. HIV positivity was associated with higher likelihood of inflammation (RR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4).Detection rates were higher among older women 41-60 years. Visual inspection of the cervix uteri with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) used as a sole method for cervical cancer screening would entail significant false positive results. HIV seropositivity was associated with a higher prevalence of inflammatory cervical lesions. In view of the small numbers and the relatively short follow up time of 3 months, we could not make an emphatic conclusion about the effect of HIV serostatus on cryotherapy treatment outcome.Cervical cancer is the second most comm
A randomized clinical trial comparing safety, clinical and parasitological response to artemether-lumefantrine and chlorproguanil-dapsone in treatment of uncomplicated malaria in pregnancy in Mulago
Daniel Kabonge Kaye,1 Ruth Nshemerirwe,1 Twaha Serunjogi Mutyaba,1 Grace Ndeezi.2
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Malaria infection during pregnancy is a major public health problem. Due to increasing resistance to Chloroquine and Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine, the Ugandan national policy on malaria treatment was changed in 2005 to Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. The policy recommends assessment of safety and efficacy of alternative drugs for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. We compared the efficacy and safety of Artemether-Lumefantrine (Coartem ) and Chlorproguanil-Dapsone (Lapdap ) in the management of uncomplicated malaria in pregnancy.Methodology: We enrolled 110 pregnant women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who presented to Mulago hospital, Uganda, with uncomplicated malaria. The study design was an open-label randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomized to receive either Artemether-Lumefantrine (Coartem 20mg/120mg) orally or Chlorproguanil-Dapsone (Lapdap ) orally for 3 consecutive days. Primary endpoints were clinical and parasitological response assessed on days 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14and 28. Adverse effects, clinical response (treatment failure) and parasitological response were compared. Analysis was by intention to treat.Results: Of the 100 women who completed the study, there was no statistically significant difference in clinical and parasitological response by Day 4. The mean fever clearance time 3.0 days with Lapdap versus 2.5 days with Coartem was comparable. Likewise, mean parasite clearance time of 2.4 and 2.2 days for Lapdap and Coartem respectively was comparable. The adverse effects were comparable between the two groups.Conclusion: Artemether-Lumefantrine and Chlorproguanil-Dapsone have high and comparable cure rates and similar safety profiles when used for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in pregnancy.
Crime Forecasting System (An exploratory web-based approach)
Yaseen Ahmed Meenai,Twaha Ahmed Meenai,Arafat Tehsin,Muhammad Ali Ilyas
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2011,
Abstract: With the continuous rise in crimes in some big cities of the world like Karachi and the increasing complexity of these crimes, the difficulties the law enforcing agencies are facing in tracking down and taking out culprits have increased manifold. To help cut back the crime rate, a Crime Forecasting System (CFS) can be used which uses historical information maintained by the local Police to help them predict crime patterns with the support of a huge and self-updating database. This system operates to prevent crime, helps in apprehending criminals, and to reduce disorder. This system is also vital in helping the law enforcers in forming a proactive approach by helping them in identifying early warning signs, take timely and necessary actions, and eventually help stop crime before it actually happens. It will also be beneficial in maintaining an up to date database of criminal suspects includes information on arrest records, communication with police department, associations with other known suspects, and membership in gangs/activist groups. After exploratory analysis of the online data acquired from the victims of these crimes, a broad picture of the scenario can be analyzed. The degree of vulnerability of an area at some particular moment can be highlighted by different colors aided by Google Maps. Some statistical diagrams have also been incorporated. The future of CFS can be seen as an information engine for the analysis, study and prediction of crimes.
Transforming Health Facilities into Mother-Baby Friendly Centers: Experience of World Vision, East African Maternal Newborn and Child Health Project in Kitgum District, Uganda, 2016  [PDF]
Babughirana Geoffrey, Musasizi Benon, Lorna Muhirwe Barungi, Andrew Tumuhameho, Tushemerirwe Florence, Twaha Rwegyema
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103180
Abstract:
The Baby Friendly Health facility Initiative (BFHI) is a health care environment which supports, protects and promotes breastfeeding as a norm. The World Vision Uganda East African Maternal Newborn and Child Health (EAMNCH) project supported its implementation with a focus on the Transformation of 24 health facilities into Mother-Baby Friendly in Kitgum district. Four (4) out of twelve (12) health facilities that participated in the external assessment scored 75% and above, and this is the required minimum score for a health facility to be certified as Baby Friendly. The four are: St Joseph’s Hospital (81%), Orom HCiii (75%), Loborom HCiii (75%), and Akilok HCiii (75%). From the findings, it’s recommended that health facilities should actively engage the Village Health Teams (VHTs) in their catchment areas to strengthen Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) community support to strengthen community-health facility linkages.
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