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OALib Journal期刊

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Investigation of the Effects of Air-Conditioning System on the Temperature and Speed of Automobile Engine Using Paired T-Test and Regression Analysis  [PDF]
Olufemi Sylvester Bamisaye, Anthony Yinka Oyerinde, Ubong Akpan Essien
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105090
Abstract:
This study investigated the effect of air-conditioning system on the tem-perature and speed of automobile engine before and after the air-conditioning system was put to use, while the vehicle was at static position. A 16-valve Nissan engine was used for this study, the engine was first run for 20 minutes before the data are collected. In the first case, the temperatures (℃) of the engine were taken in the interval of 10 minutes before and after the air-conditioning system is run and in the second case, the speeds of the engine were taken under the same conditions. The research hypothesis was formulated for 20 observations to argue that neither temperature nor speed of the engine changes when the air-conditioning system is put on and Paired t-Test statistics were used. The obtained result of t-statistics analysis for temperature and speed were -4.0329 and -5.51832 respectively. These results when compared to their critical values at 5 percent significant level, t-Statcritical < -1.73 for temperature and speed, were discovered to be at the rejection region which indicates that the null hypothesis (Ht0 and Hs0) in each case is rejected and accept that the air-conditioning system changes the temperature of the engine. Also, changes in speed requirements of the engine are not immediate and it could be as a result of an increase in fuel consump-tion due to more load on the engine. The regression correlation coefficients of 0.999996066 and 0.999653453 were obtained for the temperatures and speeds respectively with their R2 values, 0.999992132 and 0.999307027. The coefficients in the analysis were used to formulate the regression equations; T2 = 135.640 1.025t 0.496T1 and N2 = 634.005 3.824t 0.270N1 which can be used to forecast the temperatures and speeds of the engine during air-conditioning usage giving the initial parameters.
Sophocles And Shakespeare: A Comparative Study Of Classical And Elizabethan Tragedies
Ubong Nda,Margaret Akpan
International Journal of Asian Social Science , 2012,
Abstract: The dramatic arts, has through the years, produced notable practitioners in the various ages. A great many of these practitioners have creatively churned out works that have not only highlighted the peculiarities of their periods of dramatic history, but have also outlined the time confines of their ages, and the relevance of their works have defied geographical boundaries. Such works continue to have profound influence even on the 21st century socio-political and economic scenes, and are subjects of discourses to this day. Two of such practitioners have been Sophocles, (496 – 406 B.C.), whose works, constitute an epitome of the classical tradition, and William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616), a veritable exponent of Elizabethan drama, and ‘probably the greatest dramatist of all’. (Brocket: 1978:164) This essay is a comparative study of the works of Sophocles and tragic classism as well as Shakespeare and Elizabethan tragedy, with illustration principally from Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex and Oedipus at Colonus, and Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar and Macbeth.
ENSURING QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE FOR EMPLOYEES THROUGH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS PREVENTIVE MEDICINE TOOL AGAINST NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN NIGERIA
Ifeanyichukwu Christian Elendu,Ubong Samuel Akpan
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: Physical activity is one of the effective preventive medicine tools against diseases especially noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as stroke, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, hypertension, obesity,osteoporosis, among others. The high level of absenteeism, low productivity and high medical cost incurred by employees can be prevented or controlled with workplace physical activity, sport andfitness programmes. Involvement in appropriate regular physical activity will contribute to quantity and quality of life of employees. However, some employees are found being physically inactive due to some challenges such as lack, inadequate, and poor implementation of workplace physical activity and sport programmes and policies; lack or inadequate fitness centres in workplaces; lack or inadequate workplace physical activity and sport programmes, and lack or poor implementation of research findings and recommendations about physical activity, sport and NCDs by employers and employees. Others include lukewarm or negative attitude of workers towards physical activity and sport; workers' ignorance of the benefits of physical activity andsport in relation to NCDs; lack of experts' guidance on the frequency, intensity, time, and type of physical activity for workers; lack, inadequate, inproximity, inaccessibility, and poor condition ofphysical activity and sport facilities and equipment for workers, and lack or inadequate physical activity and sport experts in workplaces. Based on some of the identified challenges, and in attempt to ensure employees' quantity and quality of life through physical activity, necessary recommendations were made.
Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Uyo, Nigeria
BC Unadike, NA Akpan, EJ Peters, IO Essien, OE Essien
African Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism , 2009,
Abstract: Background: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that is responsible for most of the excess cardiovascular morbidity amongst persons with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The metabolic syndrome increases the risk for coronary heart disease and stroke by three-fold with a marked increase in cardiovascular mortality. Objectives: This study set out to find the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome amongst type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and the commonest metabolic abnormalities in them in Uyo, South-South Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A prospective cross sectional study carried out at the diabetes clinic of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, between January and August, 2008. Data obtained included anthropometric indices, blood pressure and fasting serum lipids. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 10. Results: Two hundred and forty subjects (106 males, 134 females) were enrolled for the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 62.5%. . Majority of the subjects with metabolic syndrome were aged between 41-70 years with a mean age of. 53±7years. Hypertension was the most common metabolic abnormality present in 130 (86.6%) of the subjects with metabolic syndrome, while low high density lipoprotein (HDL) was the least common abnormality present in 26 (17.3%) of the subjects with metabolic syndrome. Two metabolic abnormalities were present in 114 (76%) of the subjects, while four abnormalities were present in 4 (2.6%) of the subjects with metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 DM patients in Uyo, South-South of Nigeria is high. With the cardiovascular risk associated with this syndrome, efforts must be geared towards addressing these abnormalities through lifestyle modification, health awareness and medications in order to reduce this complication in type 2 DM patients.
A Double-Hurdle Model of Fertilizer Adoption and Optimum Use among Farmers in Southern Nigeria
Akpan, SB.,S. Nkanta, V.,Essien, UA.
Tropicultura , 2012,
Abstract: This study determines decision variables that influence fertilizer adoption and optimal intensity use among crop farmers in Abak agricultural zone of Akwa Ibom state in Southern Nigeria. Primary data were obtained from 150 arable- crop farming household heads in the study area. An independent double hurdle model was used to analyze the objectives of the study on the assumption that adoption and optimal use of fertilizer by respondents were two independent decisions influenced by different factors. Empirical estimates of the first hurdle reveals that family size, farm size, perceived price of fertilizer, years in farming business, value of crop output, extension agent visit, number of goats and sheep kept by farmers, and decision to own poultry are statistically significant decision variables that influenced the probability of adopting fertilizer by farming household heads in the study area. Estimates of the second hurdle revealed that, the decision to use optimum intensity of fertilizer by farming household heads was influenced by age, gender, farm size, purpose of crop production, perceived price of fertilizer, crop output, number of goats and sheep kept by respondents, and distance to fertilizer selling point. To encourage fertilizer adoption and it optimal usage, the price of fertilizer should further be subsidized and extension unit in the state strengthened to educate farmers more on the importance of fertilizer. Also, fertilizer selling units should be located at strategy points in the rural areas in the state so as to reduce the transportation and purchasing costs.
Classroom Climate and Students’ Academic Achievement in Social Studies in Cross River, Nigeria
K Ekpo, OE Akpan, EE Essien, MM Imo-Obot
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: This research project examined “Classroom climate and its relationship with students’ academic achievement in Social Studies”. Ex post facto design was adopted. The population of the study comprised 14,297 JSS III students and the sample was 1,200 JSS III students selected through stratified random technique from the three Educational Zones in State Secondary Education Board, Cross River State. The instrument used was a structured six-point Likert scale questionnaire, the reliability estimate of which ranged from 0.7 to 0.8 and achievement test adapted from Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination, Ministry of Education, Cross River State (2004) were used to collect information used in the study. The data collected were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression. The hypothesis was tested at .05 level of significance and 1198 and F (9,1190) degree of freedom. Based on the findings, it was concluded that all the independent variables mentioned in this study jointly contribute to the variance in students’ academic achievement in Social Studies. It was recommended that Social Studies teachers should be trained to improve their skills on an encouraging classroom climate for students’ confidence and initiative through seminars, conferences and in-service programmes.
Altered morphology of liver and pancreas tissues of offsprings of albino rats by charred meat
A.D Essien, J.O Akpan
Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The effects of food processing and or cooking practices in the variations in morphological changes in tissues were investigated. The relationship between consumption of charred meat, which is believed to be rich in nitrosamine by pregnant mothers and the adverse effects on the growth of their offsprings, alterations in morphology of tissues like liver and pancreas were studied. Meat was subjected to charcoal fire roasting without curing and was thereafter fed to pregnant rats. The results shopwed growth retardation of the offsprings, micromorphological changes in tissues such as liver (genernalized apoptotic processes and hepatocellular necrosis) and pancreas (increased islet cells density and scattered acinar hyperplasia with solid cellular area) in the offsprings of the female albino rats that were fed on 60 and 80 percent of charred meat regimen during gestation and lactation periods when compared to control. These observations have shown that meat curred or uncured when subjected to charcoal fire roasting may cause alteration in the morphology of the foetal tissues.
Diabetogenic property of charred meat on litters of pregnant albino rats
A.D Essien, J.O Akpan
Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Intake of nitrosamine - rich food has been implicated in the pathogenesis of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. The present study therefore examines a possible relationship between consumption of charred meat, rich in nitrosamine during pregnancy and the corresponding development of type 1 diabetes in their litters. Determination of blood glucose and serum insulin levels in litters showed percent charred meat related increase in the mean blood glucose values of 64.1 +- 1.39mg/dl compared with the mean control value of 53.8 +- 3.78mg/dl and a corresponding reduction in the mean serum insulin values of 2.0 +- 0.43 μU/ml compared with 5.8 +- 0.29 μU/ml in the control (P<0.05). There were no significant changes in the mean blood glucose level and serum insulin level among the corresponding pregnant rats, hence, no evidence of diabetes mellitus. These results suggest that meat, when subjected to charcoal fire roasting may be harzardous to the foetus and a causative factor in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus in the litters. Key Words: Charred meat, type 1 diabetes mellitus, serum insulin, blood glucose
Influence of firm related factors and industrial policy regime on technology based capacity utilization in sugar industry in Nigeria
S. B. Akpan,U. J. Udo,U. A. Essien
AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics , 2011,
Abstract: The study analyzed the technology based capacity utilization rate in sugar industry in Nigeria in the period 1970 to 2010. Data used in the study were obtained from the sugar firms, publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria and National Bureau of Statistics. Augmented Dicker Fuller unit root test was conducted on the specified data to ascertain their stationarity and order of integration. The result reveals that some variables were stationary at level while some were stationary at first difference. The diagnostic statistics from the multiple log linear regression on the specified variables confirmed the reliability of the model. The empirical result reveals that sugar cane price and sugar industry’s real energy consumption have significant negative relationship with the technology based capacity utilization in the sugar industry in Nigeria. On the other hand, the wage rate of skill workers, industry’s, real research expenditure, human capital and period of import substitution have significant positive influenced on the technology based capacity utilization rate in the industry. Our findings suggest that policy measures aim at expanding the hectares of industrial sugarcane and increase production of refined petroleum fuel in the country will promote capacity utilization in the industry. Also policies targeted on the intensification of research and improved worker’s remuneration in the sub-sector is strongly advocated.
Conceptual Analysis and Implications of Students’ Individual Differences to Curriculum Implementation in Technical Education
Godwin A. Akpan,Emmanuel O. Essien,Okure S. Okure
International Education Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v6n3p156
Abstract: Individual differences refer to the unique ways each human being differ from another being as expressed in behaviour or perceived in the physical appearance. Three factors of individual differences identified to be closely related to learning/acquisition of skills and performance of tasks. These are personality dimensions, self-efficacy and abilities. These factors individually and collectively have implications to implementation of curriculum in technical education. These implications presents the technical teacher with the challenges of understanding the students and planning instruction with due consideration to the needs, abilities, personalities and other individual differences related characteristics of the students. Among the various ways of coping with individual differences in curriculum implementation is through individualized instruction, the use of ICTs and software as Discrete Educational Software (DES), the use of problem-based or planning production and demonstration (PPD) to supplement classroom / workshop instructions.
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