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OALib Journal期刊

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Loose Waves in Viscoelastic Cylindrical Wave Guide with Radial Crack  [PDF]
Ismail Ibragimovich Safarov, Maqsud Sharipovich Akhmedov, Zafar Ihterovich Boltaev
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.521329
Abstract: The main features are the length of the waveguide in one direction, as well as limitations and localization of the wave beam in other areas. There is described the technique of the solution of tasks on distribution of waves in an infinite cylindrical waveguide with a radial crack. Also numerical results are given in the article. Viscous properties of the material are taken into account by means of an integral operator Voltaire. Research is conducted in the framework of the spatial theory of visco elastic. The technique is based on the separation of spatial variables and formulates the boundary eigenvalue problem that can be solved by the method of orthogonal sweep Godunov. In the given paper we obtain numeric values of the phase velocity depending on of wave numbers. The obtained numerical results are compared with the known data. This work is continuation of article [1]. Statement of the problem and methodology of partial solutions are described in [1]. In this work, we present a complete statement of the problem, methods of solution and discuss the numerical results.
Setting the Linear Oscillations of Structural Heterogeneity Viscoelastic Lamellar Systems with Point Relations  [PDF]
Ismail Ibrahimovich Safarov, Maqsud Sharipovich Akhmedov, Zafar Ihterovich Boltaev
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.62022
Abstract: The paper solves the problem of the variation formulation of the steady-linear oscillations of structurally inhomogeneous viscoelastic plate system with point connections. Under the influence of surface forces, range of motion and effort varies harmonically. The problem is reduced to solving a system of algebraic equations with complex parameters. The system of inhomogeneous linear equations is solved by the Gauss method with the release of the main elements in columns and rows of the matrix. For some specific problems, the amplitude-frequency characteristics are obtained.
Natural Oscillations of Cylindrical Bodies with External Friction on the Boundary  [PDF]
Safarov Ismail Ibrahimovich, Akhmedov Maqsud Sharipovich, Boltaev Zafar Ihterovich
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.63057
Abstract: In this paper we consider of natural oscillations cylindrical bodies with external friction. Complex rates changes from friction parameters are shown. Rate equations are solved numerically—by method of Muller.
Propagation of Natural Waves on Plates of a Variable Cross Section  [PDF]
Ismail Ibrahimovich Safarov, Zafar Ihterovich Boltaev
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104262
Abstract:
In this paper, a conjugate spectral problem and biorthogonality conditions for the problem of extended plates of variable thickness are constructed. A technique for solving problems and numerical results on the propagation of waves in infinite extended viscoelastic plates of variable thickness is described. The viscous properties of the material are taken into account using the Voltaire integral operator. The investigation is carried out within the framework of the spatial theory of viscoelasticity. The technique is based on the separation of spatial variables and the formulation of a boundary value problem for Eigen values which are solved by the Godunov orthogonal sweep method and the Muller method. Numerical values of the real and imaginary parts of the phase velocity are obtained depending on the wave numbers. In this case, the coincidence of numerical results with known data is obtained.
Waveguide Propagation in Extended Plates of Variable Thickness  [PDF]
Safarov Ismail Ibragimovich, Akhmedov Maqsud Sharipovich, Boltaev Zafar Ihterovich
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101166
Abstract: In this paper we construct conjugate spectral problem and the conditions of biorthogonality for distribution in extended plates of variable thickness of the problem considered. It describes the procedure of solving problems and a numerical result is on wave propagation in an infinitely large plate of variable thickness. Viscous properties of the material are taken into account by means of an integral operator Voltaire. Research is conducted in the framework of the spatial theory of visco elastic. The technique is based on the separation of spatial variables and formulates the boundary eigenvalue problem that can be solved by the method of orthogonal pivotal condensation Godunov. Numerical values obtained the real and imaginary parts of the phase velocity depending on the wave numbers. The numerical result coincides with the known data.
Book Review on Pakistan and the New Nuclear Taboo: Regional Deterrence and the International Arms Control Regime  [PDF]
Zafar Khan
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2013.21001
Abstract: Pakistan has always been the focus of international community, strategists, analysts, and academic scholars on various issues more especially on the nuclear issue since Pakistan has embarked its journey from covert to overt nuclearisation of South Asia. Any work in relation to Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program ranging from its nuclear policy to its nuclear security has gained a great significance in the realm of politics and international studies. Rizwana Abbasi’s maiden volume entitled, Pakistan and the New Nuclear Taboo: Regional Deterrence and the International Arms Control Regime is a welcome contribution that would certainly be embraced by the Pakistani security planners and strategic community in general and the wider international audience in particular. The key aim of this book is that norms, values, and regime still matter despite the presence and influence of hard core realism and neo-realism.
Gender Inequality in Education in Afghanistan: Access and Barriers  [PDF]
Zafar Shayan
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.55035
Abstract: As a traditional society, Afghanistan has always been a hotbed of gender inequality in different aspects. Especially, women/girls face various obstacles in education. Despite the efforts to improve the education sector in the last decade, the situation of female education still remains deplorable. There is still a long way to go in improving education, in particular female education. This article aims to examine the unequal access of females and males in primary, secondary and higher education, and presents the main obstacles that prevent women or girls from having access to education. The article is prepared by a desk study using a variety of presently available researches, papers and data related to education, women’s rights and gender inequality from national and international organizations.
LR(K) Parser Construction Using Bottom-up Formal Analysis  [PDF]
Nazir Ahmad Zafar
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.51004
Abstract: Design and construction of an error-free compiler is a difficult and challenging process. The main functionality of a compiler is to translate a source code to an executable machine code correctly and efficiently. In formal verification of software, semantics of a language has more meanings than the syntax. It means source program verification does not give guarantee the generated code is correct. This is because the compiler may lead to an incorrect target program due to bugs in itself. It means verification of a compiler is much more important than verification of a source program. In this paper, we present a new approach by linking context-free grammar and Z notation to construct LR(K) parser. This has several advantages because correctness of the compiler depends on describing rules that must be written in formal languages. First, we have defined grammar then language derivation procedure is given using right-most derivations. Verification of a given language is done by recursive procedures based on the words. Ambiguity of a language is checked and verified. The specification is analyzed and validated using Z/Eves tool. Formal proofs are presented using powerful techniques of reduction and rewriting available in Z/Eves.
Model Analysis of Equivalence Classes in UML Events Relations  [PDF]
Nazir Ahmad Zafar
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.612078
Abstract:

Unified Modeling Language (UML) has become a de facto standard for design, specification and modeling of object oriented software systems. UML structures being graphical in nature lack defining semantics of the systems and are prone to causing errors. Formal methods are proved to be a powerful tool for requirement analysis, design and specification of software systems. Hence, linking UML with formal approaches will enhance modeling power of software systems. In this paper, an approach is developed by integrating UML and Z notation focusing on equivalence relation of the state diagrams. The Z is used because it is based on the first order predicate logic having rigorous computer tool support. The reflexivity, symmetry and transitivity properties, being important at design level, are identified and described. It is believed that this approach will be effective and useful at both academics and industrial level. The need, reasoning and benefits of the integrated approach are discussed. The resultant formal models are analyzed and validated using Z/Eves tool.

Exact Solution to Nonlinear Differential Equations of Fractional Order via (G’/G)-Expansion Method  [PDF]
Muhammad Younis, Asim Zafar
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.51001
Abstract:

In this article, a new application to find the exact solutions of nonlinear partial time-space fractional differential Equation has been discussed. Firstly, the fractional complex transformation has been implemented to convert nonlinear partial fractional differential Equations into nonlinear ordinary differential Equations. Afterwards, the (G'/G)-expansion method has been implemented, to celebrate the exact solutions of these Equations, in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. As application, the exact solutions of time-space fractional Burgers’ Equation have been discussed.

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