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Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass
Abril,Diana; Abril,Alejandro;
Ciencia e investigación agraria , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-16202009000200003
Abstract: ethanol is the liquid combustible that has become the most promising alternative substitute for gasoline because of the experience gained in its production, the possibility of mixing it with gasoline in different proportions, the possibility of using the existing gasoline distribution infrastructure, and the fact that major changes in engines are not required for its use. lignocelluloses offer great potential as a biomass source for ethanol production, although their use still requires in-depth analysis with an objective and holistic focus that includes present and future technologic implications. the present article reviews current knowledge about the characteristics and sources of vegetable biomass, as well as the development and possibilities for obtaining ethanol from lignocelluloses sources.
Manejo de hábitat y microorganismos para degradar efluentes industriales: un estudio de caso
Abril,Adriana;
Ecolog?-a austral , 2005,
Abstract: the efficiency of a treatment for industrial effluents based on a combination of habitat and microbial population management was tested in a metallurgic plant in córdoba, argentina. effluents (between 30 - 40 m3 day) were originated from a) zinc process (20%), b) engine washing (70%), and c) sewage (10%). the treatment process included a combination of three managed habitats: aquatic (pond), wetland (flooding plots), and agricultural land (flooding and crop plots). the three habitats were managed to optimize the degrading activity of water, soil, and phyllosphere microorganisms. management practices included introduction of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation, water aeration, sediment removal, and inoculation of selected native microorganisms. efficiency was assessed through five years using the following parameters: a) monthly: water ph and abundance of degrading and coliform bacteria in the pond b) yearly: zn, cr and mineral oil content in the underground water (9 m deep), sediments in the ponds and organic matter in the subsoil (1 and 2 m deep). water ph was permanently high (8.4 -10.9), whereas abundance of degrading microorganisms was very low at the beginning (log 1.2/ ml) increasing through the following years and with fluctuations of between log 3.6 and 8.9/ ml. no increase in bacterial abundance was detected after inoculation. coliform bacteria were scarcely observed. high concentration of zn (6.48 - 7.08 mg/kg) and cr (0.19 - 0.50 mg/kg) and low mineral oil content (0.23 -1.01 mg/kg) were detected in the pond′s sediments. none of these components were detected in underground water and subsoil. habitat management allowed an efficient degradation of sewage and mineral oils. the system does not produce waste material such as sludge, water, nor underground water pollution.
?Son los microorganismos edáficos buenos indicadores de impacto productivo en los ecosistemas?
Abril,Adriana;
Ecolog?-a austral , 2003,
Abstract: soil microbial parameters as land-use indicators were evaluated in the semi-arid central region of argentina. contrasting land-use situations were compared in chaco woodlands and espinal agro-ecosystems: high impact (positive and negative), medium impact, low impact, and restoration. the sensibility of chemical (organic matter, ph, and nitrate) and biological (soil respiration and abundance of microbial functional groups) parameters was evaluated by estimating the percent variation between disturbed and undisturbed soils in each land-use situation. moreover, microbial community structure (relation among functional groups) and carbon mineralization rate (respiration/organic matter) were calculated. biological parameters were more sensitive than the chemical ones. nitrifiers (variation range: -55% to +23%), cellulolitics (-50% to +49%), and soil respiration (-60% to +21%) were the most sensitive parameters. the changes on microbial community and carbon mineralization rate were good indicators, particularly in medium impact and restoration situations. some biological parameters may have an important role as indicators for sustainable land-use ecosystems due to their high sensibility and easiness to measure.
?Dominación como reconocimiento distorsionado?: Una aproximación al problema desde la propuesta de A. Honneth
Abril,Francisco;
T?3picos , 2012,
Abstract: this article aims to explain how axel honneth analyzes the problem of domination in critique of power and struggle for recognition. in the first book, the author discusses how social groups build domination practices, without legitimizing them a posteriori. that conception of domination raises the following problem: includes honneth's proposal the fact that different groups consent to what habermas has called "superfluous forms of domination"? first, i will develop this problem as it is presented in critique of power; then, i will try to re-translate the question considering the concepts that honneth introduces in later works such as struggle for recognition. the ultimate goal is to understand the conflicts for recognition between different social groups, conflicts on which depend who are legitimate members of a community.
Para una relectura de la crítica a la razón de Theodor W. Adorno y Max Horkheimer
Abril,Francisco;
T?3picos , 2009,
Abstract: this paper aims to offer an analysis of the critique of reason developed by max horkheimer and theodor w. adorno in three of his most important books: dialectic of enlightenment, the critique of instrumental reason and minima moralia. two fundamental questions are posed: does the thought of the authors set a radical critique? if this is the case, wouldn't it imply a series of meta theorical problems and contradictions? in order to treat these questions, the statement is divided into two parts. the first explores the recurring issues of the critique of reason. in the second, we elaborate a brief reconstruction of two opposite hermeneutics of horkheimer and adorno's works: on the one hand, the lecture of frankfurt school's second generation (jürgen habermas and albrecht wellmer); on the other hand, juan josé sánchez's exposition. our principal contribution to this debate is to warn sánchez that, in his justified intention of separating from habermas and postmodern's reading, he finally weakens the contradictory and negative tone of adorno and horkheimer's philosophy.
Para una relectura de la crítica a la razón de Theodor W. Adorno y Max Horkheimer
Francisco Abril
T?3picos , 2009,
Abstract: La temática que se aborda en este artículo es la crítica a la razón elaborada por Max Horkheimer y Theodor W. Adorno en tres obras fundamentales: Dialéctica de la Ilustración, Crítica de la razón instrumental y Minima Moralia. Las preguntas que se buscan responder son las siguientes: Constituye el pensamiento conjunto de los autores una crítica radical? Si así fuera, no implicaría una serie de problemas meta teóricos y contradicciones (como ser, cuestionar a la razón que sirve de fundamento a su pensamiento)? El escrito se divide en dos partes. En la primera se abordan los motivos recurrentes de la crítica a la razón. En la segunda, se elabora una sucinta reconstrucción de dos interpretaciones contrapuestas de las obras mencionadas: por un lado, la de los miembros de la segunda generación de la Escuela de Frankfurt, en particular la de Jürgen Habermas y la de Albrecht Wellmer; por otro lado, la del comentarista espa ol Juan José Sánchez. El aporte teórico de este artículo consiste en advertirle a este último autor que, en su justificado afán de distanciarse de la lectura habermasiana y de la postmoderna, termina debilitando el tono contradictorio y negativo de la filosofía conjunta de Adorno y Horkheimer. This paper aims to offer an analysis of the critique of reason developed by Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno in three of his most important books: Dialectic of Enlightenment, The critique of instrumental reason and Minima Moralia. Two fundamental questions are posed: Does the thought of the authors set a radical critique? If this is the case, wouldn't it imply a series of meta theorical problems and contradictions? In order to treat these questions, the statement is divided into two parts. The first explores the recurring issues of the critique of reason. In the second, we elaborate a brief reconstruction of two opposite hermeneutics of Horkheimer and Adorno's works: on the one hand, the lecture of Frankfurt School's second generation (Jürgen Habermas and Albrecht Wellmer); on the other hand, Juan José Sánchez's exposition. Our principal contribution to this debate is to warn Sánchez that, in his justified intention of separating from Habermas and postmodern's reading, he finally weakens the contradictory and negative tone of Adorno and Horkheimer's philosophy.
Dominación como reconocimiento distorsionado?: Una aproximación al problema desde la propuesta de A. Honneth
Francisco Abril
T?3picos , 2012,
Abstract: En el presente artículo se busca dilucidar cómo Axel Honneth aborda el problema de la dominación en Crítica del poder y La lucha por el reconocimiento. En la primera obra, el autor analiza de qué forma los sujetos sociales construyen prácticas de dominación y no se limitan a legitimarlas a posteriori. Esta concepción del dominio pone a Honneth ante el siguiente problema: comprendería su planteo, además de la construcción activa de los marcos institucionales que regulan las relaciones sociales, el hecho de que los distintos grupos den asentimiento a "formas superfluas de dominación"? El primer objetivo de mi trabajo es desarrollar este problema tal y como se presenta en Crítica del poder; el segundo, apunta a retraducir esa cuestión según los términos teóricos que Honneth introduce en trabajos posteriores al hablar de una lucha por el reconocimiento. Estos trabajos buscan comprender el conflicto que se suscita en torno al reconocimiento entre los diferentes grupos sociales y del que depende que sean considerados miembros legítimos de una comunidad. This article aims to explain how Axel Honneth analyzes the problem of domination in Critique of power and Struggle for recognition. In the first book, the author discusses how social groups build domination practices, without legitimizing them a posteriori. That conception of domination raises the following problem: includes Honneth's proposal the fact that different groups consent to what Habermas has called "superfluous forms of domination"? First, I will develop this problem as it is presented in Critique of power; then, I will try to re-translate the question considering the concepts that Honneth introduces in later works such as Struggle for recognition. The ultimate goal is to understand the conflicts for recognition between different social groups, conflicts on which depend who are legitimate members of a community.
Se puede hacer semiótica y no morir de inmanentismo?
Gonzalo Abril
IC : Revista Científica de Información y Comunicación , 2008,
Abstract: El artículo defiende el interés que supone para la crítica cultural y de la comunicación de masas el enfoque semiótico, y por lo tanto para los denominados estudios culturales. En opinión de su autor vale la pena mantener y desarrollar la semiótica para el análisis sociocultural, y más precisamente para el análisis de las culturas populares modernas, o masivas, a condición de que se entienda como una metodología transdisciplinar y no constre ida por el principio del inmanentismo. The paper defends the concerns of semiotics to culture and media criticism, and therefore to so called cultural studies. It is worth keeping and developing semiotics for sociocultural analysis and, more precisely, for analysis of modern popular or mass cultures, on condition that it would be understood as a methodology across disciplines, not self sufficient in nature.
El séptimo día. Notas sobre la comunicación en la era digital
Gonzalo Abril
IC : Revista Científica de Información y Comunicación , 2003,
Abstract:
Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water
Abril, D.;Medina, M.;Abril, A.;
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-66322012000100004
Abstract: results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. the experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. the study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 32 experimental design at temperatures of 150-190oc and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190oc in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/l, furfural < 2.5 g/l, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/l, and concentrations < 3.0 g/l of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. these parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.
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