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Inverse Problem on Heat Conduction in Heterogeneous Medium  [PDF]
Albert Schwab
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2014.41003
Abstract:

Under consideration is a nonclassical stationary problem on heat conduction in a body with the pre-set surface temperature and heat flow. The body contains inclusions at unknown locations and with unknown boundaries. The body and inclusions have different constant thermal conductivities. The author explores the possibility of locating inclusions. The article presents an integral criterion based on which a few statements on identification of inclusions in a body are proved.

Post Mid-Staffordshire Inquiries Reaction, in and about the National Health Service (NHS), England. The Missing Pieces: Organizational, Care and Virtue Ethics Perspectives  [PDF]
Albert Coleman
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.516131
Abstract:

The release of the Mid Staffordshire hospital report otherwise called the Francis report once again ignited the debate about the issue of abuse of especially vulnerable patients, while navigating the care pathway as inpatients in hospitals; within the National health service (NHS), England. Once more the official reaction from the NHS directorate is more “standards” to monitor failed standards in patient care. Of interest in the official responses so far, are the unheard voices addressing the issue of healthcare and organizational ethics concerns that need revisiting. This article seeks to revisit practice, systems and care issues leading to incidents of the type of the Staffordshire abuses, and the important but yet unheralded place of organizational and care ethics in helping to curb such abuses from re-occurring.

Road Traffic Accidents in Ghana: A Public Health Concern, and a Call for Action in Ghana, (and the Sub-Region)  [PDF]
Albert Coleman
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.411092
Abstract: This paper highlights the increasing problem of road traffic accident (RTA) related morbidity and mortality in Ghana, and the public health measures needed to control the problem. Descriptive data in the public domain from statutory bodies and media houses reports on country RTA information, as well as academic papers on the problem, were used as source of information about the problem. The observed trend in Ghana indicates that RTA related fatalities and injuries continue to be increasing, as morbidity and mortality factors since the year 2000. Most of the remedial measures suggested in academic papers, and state agencies measures to curb the RTA trend in Ghana to date, have discussed the problem in terms of injury and safety issues/measures. This paper suggests that the increasing RTAs with associated morbidity and mortality in Ghana need to be looked at more as a public health problem and priority that requires prompt tackling using a public health problem orientated approach and measures, than just as a safety problem due to RTAs’, as is currently done.
What are the top most costly diseases for USA? The alignment of burden of illness with prevention and screening expenditures  [PDF]
Guvenc Kockaya, Albert Wertheimer
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.210172
Abstract: Background: It was the intention of the authors to generate a list of the top diseases responsible for the greatest financial expense in the United States. This listing would then inform policymakers as to the highest priority target conditions. With such information available, funding for the NIH could be accomplished based upon factual criteria rather than political clout or uninformed consensus. Method: The first step was a literature review to explore articles and reports which were published about the cost of illness (COI) up to December 2009. Therefore the source of the data used in this investigation was obtained from this retrospective search approach. Results: With reference to total cost for disease, first was HCVD with 475.3 billion US dollars, followed by alcohol abuse and substance at 300.6 billion US dollars, digestive diseases at 259.6 billion US dollars, cancer at 239.5 billion US dollars and mental disease at 216,6 billion US dollars. Conclusion: As has been seen, the total societal costs of the diseases do not synch with the degree of attention paid to these various disease states. Several of the diseases have very powerful and vocal support organizations that encourage attention and clinical research support. On the other hand we hear very little about efforts against allergic rhinitis or infectious and parasitic diseases.
Analysis of Pesticide Raid® in Feed of Wistar Rat by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)  [PDF]
Albert C. Achudume
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.228121
Abstract: The distribution of pesticide by-product in tissues of wistar rats were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of detection of the HPLC was 0.1 µg. Results show bioaccumulation factor of pesticide “Raid®” in lipid, up to three times that of the feed at the first concentration and gradually decreased as the concentration increased in the muscle > (0.7), brain > (0.5) and liver > (0.3) as indicated in the text. At higher concentration of 961 µg/g, bioaccumulation factor decreased in the lipid to 1.2 and 0.6 in the muscle, 0.03 in the brain and 0.08 in the liver respectively. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of raid extract suggests the presence of micprothrin and palethrin. The implications are numerous, but simply put that accidental ingestion of chlorinated hydrocarbon as in “Raid®” may involve convulsions, collapse and coma after only brief excitation and ataxia at the onset.
The Emerging Importance of Professional Liability Insurance Coverage for Pharmacists  [PDF]
Sumera Kazim, Albert Wertheimer
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.52023
Abstract:

As the responsibilities for clinical pharmacists have increased in recent years, the pharmacy practitioner finds the need for professional liability insurance. This report describes the practice changes under way and describes the malpractice insurance options available to current pharmacy practitioners.

A Direct Transformation of a Matrix Spectrum  [PDF]
Albert Iskhakov, Sergey Skovpen
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2015.53011
Abstract: A method is presented for calculating a matrix spectrum with a given set of eigenvalues. It can be used to build systems with different spectrums with the aim of choosing desired alternative. It enables a practical implementation of control algorithms without resorting to transformation of variables.
Conserved network motifs allow protein-protein interaction prediction
Istvan Albert,Reka Albert
Quantitative Biology , 2004,
Abstract: High-throughput protein interaction detection methods are strongly affected by false positive and false negative results. Focused experiments are needed to complement the large-scale methods by validating previously detected interactions but it is often difficult to decide which proteins to probe as interaction partners. Developing reliable computational methods assisting this decision process is a pressing need in bioinformatics. We show that we can use the conserved properties of the protein network to identify and validate interaction candidates. We apply a number of machine learning algorithms to the protein connectivity information and achieve a surprisingly good overall performance in predicting interacting proteins. Using a 'leave-one-out' approach we find average success rates between 20-50% for predicting the correct interaction partner of a protein. We demonstrate that the success of these methods is based on the presence of conserved interaction motifs within the network. A reference implementation and a table with candidate interacting partners for each yeast protein are available at http://www.protsuggest.org
Quantitative assessment of heavy metals in some tea marketed in Nigeria ——Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tea  [PDF]
Albert Cosmas Achudume, Dayo Owoeye
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.29162
Abstract: Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tea marketed in Nigeria was investigated. Four major and most consumed brand of tea were selected for the present study. Both aqueous and dry methods were used. Total contents of metal were determined by digesting 1g of each brand using a mixture (3:1) concentrated nitric acid (NNO3) and hypochlorous acid (HCLO4). The second method involved hot water extract of tea samples. After boiling and filtration, the residue was evaporated to near dryness and digested with concentrated HNO3 and HCLO4 as described above. Results indicate that Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb were present in lowest concentrations in ascending order for which there were two significant differences between the four sources of samples. The general characteristics of heavy metal concentrations in aqueous extract showed high level of Fe and Mg in a descending order. Going by the correlation study of our result indicates that there is no significant relationship between the two elements of Fe and Mg, though, the numerical values of the two elements varied widely among the samples. These differences may have major impact on human health. However, the beneficial effects of tea are in a fairly narrow concentration range between the essential and the toxic level. In conclusion, the variations in heavy metals content of tea brands may be due to geographical, seasonal changes and the chemical characteristics of the growing regions.
Oxidative Stress and Oxidative Damage in Male Rat Erythrocytes Associated with Prolonged Exposure to Smoke Pollution  [PDF]
Albert Cosmas Achudume, Funso Aina
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.35051
Abstract: Exposure of animals to different duration of smoke can result in a wide range of adverse clinical conditions. Toxicological consequences arising from prolonged exposure may not be totally enumerated. The present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress-inducing potential of a short and long-time exposure of male rat erythrocytes to environmentally relevant to public health. Male Wistar rats were exposed to open municipal land-fill smoke for 30 and/or 60 days. The oxidative stress in erythrocytes was evaluated by assessing the magnitude of malondialdehyde production and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (C) and glutathione reductase (GR) after 30 and/or 60 days of exposure. After 30 days there was no change in SOD, catalase and GR activities and no alterations in GSH and lipid peroxidation (LPO). After 60 days, the levels and activities of SOD (23.62%), catalase (5.24%), GR (14.87%) decreased. Overall, the study demonstrates that the chronic exposure of male rats to smoke results in induction of oxidative stress and simultaneous reduction in antioxidative defense system in erythrocytes at 60 days of exposure.
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