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Who Meets the Standrads: A Multidimensional Approach  [PDF]
Antonio Villar
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.24069
Abstract: We consider here the evaluation of the performance of a society with respect to a given set of targets. We provide a characterization of an intuitive evaluation formula that consists of the mean of the shares of the achievements in the targets. The criterion so obtained permits one not only to endogenously determine who meets the standards and who does not, but also to quantify the degree of fulfilment. Two empirical illustrations are provided: the compliance of the European Union Stability and Growth Pact, on the one hand, and the evaluation of research excellence in the Spanish universities, on the other hand.
The Educational Development Index: A Multidimensional Approach to Educational Achievements through PISA  [PDF]
Antonio Villar
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.45042
Abstract:

This paper proposes a multidimensional index that summarizes three relevant aspects of the educational achievements, out of the data provided by the PISA Report, concerning reading abilities of 15-year-old students from 65 countries. The three aspects considered are: performance, equity, and quality. The Educational Development Index (EDI) is the geometric mean of the normalized values of those three variables. We analyse the distribution of the variables that approach those three aspects and the resulting index, relative to the corresponding means of the OECD countries.

The Factorizational Theory of Finite Asymptotic Expansions in the Real Domain: A Survey of the Main Results  [PDF]
Antonio Granata
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.51001
Abstract:

After studying finite asymptotic expansions in real powers, we have developed a general theory for expansions of type (*)\"\" ,x x0 where the ordered n-tuple \"\" forms an asymptotic scale at x0 , i.e.\"\" as x x0, 1 i n 1,

The Role of Asymptotic Mean in the Geometric Theory of Asymptotic Expansions in the Real Domain  [PDF]
Antonio Granata
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.52013
Abstract:

We call “asymptotic mean” (at +∞) of a real-valued function \"\" the number, supposed to exist, \"\", and highlight its role in the geometric theory of asymptotic expansions in the real domain of type (*) \"\" where the comparison functions \"\", forming an asymptotic scale at +∞, belong to one of the three classes having a definite “type of variation” at +∞, slow, regular or rapid. For regularly varying comparison functions we can characterize the existence of an asymptotic expansion (*) by the nice property that a certain quantity F(t) has an asymptotic mean at +∞. This quantity is defined via a linear differential operator in f and admits of a remarkable geometric interpretation as it measures the ordinate of the point wherein that special curve \"\", which has a contact of order n -

Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy in Runners: Relationship between Pain and Tendon Vascularity and Efficacy and Safety of the Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy  [PDF]
Antonio Ammendolia
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2015.46044
Abstract:
Few studies report the possible correlation pain-paratendon microvascularity during the painful phase of the chronic Achilles tendinopathy and the efficacy of the radial shock wave therapy re-spect to other therapies. The aim of the present longitudinal, controlled study is to demonstrate the variation of the tendon micro vascularization in athletes affected by Achilles tendinopathy and the efficacy and safety of the radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Twelve elite runners with Achilles tendinopathy were compared with 12 healthy amateurs, both treated by radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy in 3 sessions (1/every 3 days). VAS scale was used for pain evaluation at one and six months after treatment and a Color and Power Doppler echography was performed to observe the paratendon microvascularity before the beginning of the treatment and at one and six months after. One month after the beginning of the treatment, it was observed a decrease of the hypervascularity in all 12 subjects with tendinopathy and no variation in the control group participants. Clinically, 80% of patients referred pain relief and they were able to return to sports activity. The decrease of the paratendon microvascularity confirms the correlation between the disappearance of the pain and the normalization of the vascularity in the athletes. Moreover, radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy consented a quickly pain relief and returned to the sport. These results confirmed the efficacy and safety of this physical therapy that it could be considered a good therapeutic choice in the treatment of the chronic Achilles tendinopathy.
Analytic Theory of Finite Asymptotic Expansions in the Real Domain. Part II-C: Constructive Algorithms for Canonical Factorizations and a Special Class of Asymptotic Scales  [PDF]
Antonio Granata
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.58047
Abstract: This part II-C of our work completes the factorizational theory of asymptotic expansions in the real domain. Here we present two algorithms for constructing canonical factorizations of a disconjugate operator starting from a basis of its kernel which forms a Chebyshev asymptotic scale at an endpoint. These algorithms arise quite naturally in our asymptotic context and prove very simple in special cases and/or for scales with a small numbers of terms. All the results in the three Parts of this work are well illustrated by a class of asymptotic scales featuring interesting properties. Examples and counterexamples complete the exposition.
Analytic Theory of Finite Asymptotic Expansions in the Real Domain. Part II-B: Solutions of Differential Inequalities and Asymptotic Admissibility of Standard Derivatives  [PDF]
Antonio Granata
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.58046
Abstract: Part II-B of our work continues the factorizational theory of asymptotic expansions of type (*) \"\"\"\",\"\" , \"\" where the asymptotic scale \"\", \"\" , is assumed to be an extended complete Chebyshev system on a one-sided neighborhood of x0. The main result states that to each scale of this type it remains as-sociated an important class of functions (namely that of generalized convex functions) enjoying the property that the expansion (*), if valid, is automatically formally differentiable n ? 1 times in the two special senses characterized in Part II-A. A second result shows that formal applications of ordinary derivatives to an asymptotic expansion are rarely admissible and that they may also yield skew results even for scales of powers.
Analytic Theory of Finite Asymptotic Expansions in the Real Domain. Part II-A: The Factorizational Theory for Chebyshev Asymptotic Scales  [PDF]
Antonio Granata
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.58045
Abstract: This paper, divided into three parts (Part II-A, Part II-B and Part II-C), contains the detailed factorizational theory of asymptotic expansions of type (?)?\"\", \"\", \"\", where the asymptotic scale?\"\", \"\", is assumed to be an extended complete Chebyshev system on a one-sided neighborhood of . It follows two pre-viously published papers: the first, labelled as Part I, contains the complete (elementary but non-trivial) theory for \"\"; the second is a survey highlighting only the main results without proofs. All the material appearing in §2 of the survey is here reproduced in an expanded form, as it contains all the preliminary formulas necessary to understand and prove the results. The remaining part of the survey—especially the heuristical considerations and consequent conjectures in §3—may serve as a good introduction to the complete theory.
On the Spatial Diffusion of Knowledge by Universities Located in Small and Medium Sized Towns  [PDF]
Conceicao Rego, Antonio Caleiro
iBusiness (IB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2010.22012
Abstract: Many studies, provided by diverse authors and institutions, demonstrate that, at a territorial level, development is directly related to the level of education and R & D. Territories with higher development levels are, generally, those that have a higher level of education and R & D. The relationship between the acquisition of knowledge and institutional education is therefore decisive. In this area, the role of universities is fundamental. The retention of university graduates is one of the main ways that the cities and the regions can adopt to retain those endowed with higher propensity to innovation, enterprise spirit and management capacity. Given that higher education institutions, in general, and universities, in particular, are obviously crucial in the process of knowledge increase, it becomes important to analyse how can these institutions act as ways of spatial diffusion of knowledge given that their graduates may migrate to other regions of the country (or for another country). The alleged increased probability of this migration to occur when the university is located in a small or medium sized town makes that analysis also interesting from the viewpoint of the development role that this kind of cities can perform, not only in the adjacent rural areas, but also across all the urban areas of the territory. The focus of our work consists in this analysis, which complements a theoretical approach with an empirical part based upon the results that can be observed for the influence of one university located in a small/medium sized town (the University of Évora) in the spatial diffusion of knowledge through its graduates.
Altruism, Selfishness and Social Cohesion  [PDF]
Antonio Luigi Paolilli
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.14018
Abstract: Recently has been shown that, given certain conditions, altruism can prevail in a population even without the help of mechanisms as kin selection, reciprocal altruism and group selection. At the light of this hypothesis, it is shown how altruism and cooperative aptitudes can favor the concentration of a population and how an (incomplete) evolution of altruism, caused by group selection, into the Benthamian form, determining the emergence of sentiments and behaviors, such as a sense of justice, as well as envy and gossip, can lead to the formation of a regulated society. From this standpoint, altruism leads to group selection, and not the contrary.
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