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Universal Signal Conditioning System for Amperometric Sensors
CRISTEA, D. G.,BASCH, M. E.,BEN-YOAV, H.,TIPONUT, V.
Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.4316/aece.2012.01004
Abstract: In this article the research for developing whole-cell biochips has been presented using both bioluminescent and electrochemical methods. The research was on integrating an electrode cell with both electrochemical and bioluminescent detection using a single VLSI chip. The authors have investigated the signal conditioning system that can work with any kind of amperometric and bioluminescent sensor. During this research the authors focused on the analog front-end unit. The work includes investigating the electronic model for simulation for an electrochemical cell and conceiving a fully integrated 8X8 electrochemical sensor array. The authors are focusing on signal conditioning system and its functionality. The main concern for the authors was to maintain the complexity and the number of electronic devices as low as possible.
Integrated Polypyrrole Flexible Conductors for Biochips and MEMS Applications
Rakefet Ofek Almog,Hadar Ben-Yoav,Yelena Sverdlov,Tsvi Shmilovich,Slava Krylov,Yosi Shacham-Diamand
Journal of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/850482
Abstract: Integrated polypyrrole, a conductive polymer, interconnects on polymeric substrates were microfabricated for flexible sensors and actuators applications. It allows manufacturing of moving polymeric microcomponents suitable, for example, for micro-optical-electromechanical (MOEMS) systems or implanted sensors. This generic technology allows producing “all polymer” components where the polymers serve as both the structural and the actuating materials. In this paper we present two possible novel architectures that integrate polypyrrole conductors with other structural polymers: (a) polypyrrole embedded into flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix forming high aspect ratio electrodes and (b) polypyrrole deposited on planar structures. Self-aligned polypyrrole electropolymerization was developed and demonstrated for conducting polymer lines on either gold or copper seed layers. The electropolymerization process, using cyclic voltammetry from an electrolyte containing the monomer, is described, as well as the devices’ characteristics. Finally, we discuss the effect of integrating conducting polymers with metal seed layer, thus enhancing the device durability and reliability.
Integrated Polypyrrole Flexible Conductors for Biochips and MEMS Applications
Rakefet Ofek Almog,Hadar Ben-Yoav,Yelena Sverdlov,Tsvi Shmilovich,Slava Krylov,Yosi Shacham-Diamand
Journal of Atomic and Molecular Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/850482
Abstract: Integrated polypyrrole, a conductive polymer, interconnects on polymeric substrates were microfabricated for flexible sensors and actuators applications. It allows manufacturing of moving polymeric microcomponents suitable, for example, for micro-optical-electromechanical (MOEMS) systems or implanted sensors. This generic technology allows producing “all polymer” components where the polymers serve as both the structural and the actuating materials. In this paper we present two possible novel architectures that integrate polypyrrole conductors with other structural polymers: (a) polypyrrole embedded into flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix forming high aspect ratio electrodes and (b) polypyrrole deposited on planar structures. Self-aligned polypyrrole electropolymerization was developed and demonstrated for conducting polymer lines on either gold or copper seed layers. The electropolymerization process, using cyclic voltammetry from an electrolyte containing the monomer, is described, as well as the devices’ characteristics. Finally, we discuss the effect of integrating conducting polymers with metal seed layer, thus enhancing the device durability and reliability. 1. Introduction Polymeric materials, both insulators and conductors, offer several interesting characteristics useful for MEMS applications. They are especially attractive for applications in which conventional materials such as silicon, glass, and most metals are too stiff. Using polymers with a lower Young’s modulus will allow the development of microsensors, optical components, microfluidics and actuators with reduced stiffness [1–3], allowing larger deformations under lower driving forces. They are also characterized by several advantageous properties [4] such as high elasticity, variety of 3D structure formations, and potentially low cost for mass production. Polymers are attractive candidates for bio-sensors and implanted devices since many of the polymers are biocompatible and can be chemically functionalized by modifying the devices surface. Polymers are especially attractive for microactuators since their reduced stiffness allows low operating voltages and less power consumption. We can classify the polymers based on their electrical properties: conductors, insulators, and semiconductor-like polymers. Most of the polymers are insulators, and there are many available structural polymers with microfabrication compatibility and Young’s modulus that can exceed 1?GPa (e.g., polyimide) or below 1?MPa (e.g., PDMS). A special class of polymers, the conjugated organic polymers, is
How does Socio-Political Context Shape Daily Living: The Case of Jews and Arabs in Israel  [PDF]
Adital Ben-Ari, Yoav Lavee
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.21001
Abstract: The present paper addresses a timely topic by exploring the contribution of cultural, ethnic, and contextual attributes to close relationships within particular armed-political conflict. It is based on a series of studies to examine the daily lives of Jews and Arabs with different cultural orientations within the context of armed political conflict. In Study 1, we surveyed 697 Jewish and 300 Arab respondents to examine the extent to which daily occurrences are similarly experienced as stressful by different cultural and socio-political groups and how those occurrences relate to life and marital satisfaction. In Study 2, we employed a daily diary methodology with a sample of 300 couples to explore how daily fluctuations in psychological well-being and marital relationships relate to daily hassles. Security-related stress was perceived as the main source of stress for both Jews and Arabs, but on a daily basis it had little or no effect on well-being and marital relationships. The findings attest to the significance of the socio-political context within which people of different ethnic and cultural identity experience their daily lives. In so doing, this article advances new directions for theory and research.
Weak Gelfand Pair Property And Application To GL(n+1),GL(n) Over Finite Fields
Yoav Ben Shalom
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: Let F_q be the finite field with q elements. Consider the standard embedding GL(n,F_q) -> GL(n+1,F_q). In this paper we prove that for every irreducible representation pi of GL(n+1,F_q) over algebraically closed fields of characteristic different from 2 we have dim\pi^GL(n,F_q)<=2. To do that we define a property of weak Gelfand pair and prove a generalization of Gelfand trick for weak Gelfand pairs, using the anti-involution transpose to get the result for GL(n+1,F_q),GL(n,F_q). In a similar manner we show that for q not a power of 2 O(n+1,F_q),O(n,F_q) is a Gelfand pair over algebraically closed fields of characteristic different from 2.
Dynamic Expression of the Translational Machinery during Bacillus subtilis Life Cycle at a Single Cell Level
Alex Rosenberg, Lior Sinai, Yoav Smith, Sigal Ben-Yehuda
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041921
Abstract: The ability of bacteria to responsively regulate the expression of translation components is crucial for rapid adaptation to fluctuating environments. Utilizing Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) as a model organism, we followed the dynamics of the translational machinery at a single cell resolution during growth and differentiation. By comprehensive monitoring the activity of the major rrn promoters and ribosomal protein production, we revealed diverse dynamics between cells grown in rich and poor medium, with the most prominent dissimilarities exhibited during deep stationary phase. Further, the variability pattern of translational activity varied among the cells, being affected by nutrient availability. We have monitored for the first time translational dynamics during the developmental process of sporulation within the two distinct cellular compartments of forespore and mother-cell. Our study uncovers a transient forespore specific increase in expression of translational components. Finally, the contribution of each rrn promoter throughout the bacterium life cycle was found to be relatively constant, implying that differential expression is not the main purpose for the existence of multiple rrn genes. Instead, we propose that coordination of the rrn operons serves as a strategy to rapidly fine tune translational activities in a synchronized fashion to achieve an optimal translation level for a given condition.
Wiener's Tauberian theorem in L^1(G//K) and harmonic functions in the unit disk
Yaakov Ben Natan,Yoav Benyamini,H?kan Hedenmalm,Yitzhak Weit
Mathematics , 1995,
Abstract: Our main result is to give necessary and sufficient conditions, in terms of Fourier transforms, on a closed ideal $I$ in $\loneg$, the space of radial integrable functions on $G=SU(1,1)$, so that $I=\loneg$ or $I=\lonez$---the ideal of $\loneg$ functions whose integral is zero. This is then used to prove a generalization of Furstenberg's theorem which characterizes harmonic functions on the unit disk by a mean value property and a ``two circles" Morera type theorem (earlier announced by Agranovski\u{\i}).
Maternal and offspring fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants and cognitive function at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children
Bonilla Carolina,Lawlor Debbie A,Ben–Shlomo Yoav,Ness Andrew R
BMC Medical Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-13-90
Abstract: Background In observational epidemiological studies type 2 diabetes (T2D) and both low and high plasma concentrations of fasting glucose have been found to be associated with lower cognitive performance. These associations could be explained by confounding. Methods In this study we looked at the association between genetic variants, known to be robustly associated with fasting glucose and T2D risk, in the mother and her offspring to determine whether there is likely to be a causal link between early life exposure to glucose and child’s intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. We generated a fasting glucose (FGGRS) and a T2D (T2DGRS) genetic risk score and used them in a Mendelian randomization approach. Results We found a strong correlation between the FGGRS and fasting glucose plasma measurements that were available for a subset of children, but no association of either the maternal or the offspring FGGRS with child’s IQ was observed. In contrast, the maternal T2DGRS was positively associated with offspring IQ. Conclusions Maternal and offspring genetic variants which are associated with glucose levels are not associated with offspring IQ, suggesting that there is unlikely to be a causal link between glucose exposure in utero and IQ in childhood. Further exploration in even larger cohorts is required to exclude the possibility that our null findings were due to a lack of statistical power.
The Use of a Genetic Score in Assigning Students to Classes in PE Teacher Preparation Programs—A Preliminary Study  [PDF]
Sigal Ben-Zaken, Ronnie Lidor, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet, Yoav Meckel
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2018.82016
Abstract: A teacher preparation program for physical education (PE)is typically composed of a number of branches,?including?sport and exercise sciences, sport pedagogy, and activity classes. Theactivity classesplay a key role in developing content knowledge that can be implemented by PE teachers in their classes. An attempt was made in thispreliminary study to examine the use of a genetic score that has the potential to assist consultants/instructors in obtaining relevant information on the aerobic and anaerobic abilities of students enrolled in a PE teacher preparation program, as well as in assigning these students to activity classes included in the program. Participants were 219 PE students (111 males and 108 females; mean age = 20-29 yrs.),enrolled in a PE teacher preparation program at The Academic College at Wingate. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral bloodsamples. Genotyping of the?ACTN3R/X and?ACE?I/D polymorphisms was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Two polygenetic scoreswere computed: Power Genetic Distance Score (PGDS2) and Endurance Genetic Distance Score (EGDS2). The main finding that emerged from our study was that both themale and female PE students were genetically predisposed
Breast Carcinoma Cells in Primary Tumors and Effusions Have Different Gene Array Profiles
Sophya Konstantinovsky,Yoav Smith,Sofia Zilber,Helene Tuft Stavnes,Anne-Marie Becker,Jahn M. Nesland,Reuven Reich,Ben Davidson
Journal of Oncology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/969084
Abstract: The detection of breast carcinoma cells in effusions is associated with rapidly fatal outcome, but these cells are poorly characterized at the molecular level. This study compared the gene array signatures of breast carcinoma cells in primary carcinomas and effusions. The genetic signature of 10 primary tumors and 10 effusions was analyzed using the Array-Ready Oligo set for the Human Genome platform. Results for selected genes were validated using PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Array analysis identified 255 significantly downregulated and 96 upregulated genes in the effusion samples. The majority of differentially expressed genes were part of pathways involved in focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-cell interaction, and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Genes that were upregulated in effusions included KRT8, BCAR1, CLDN4, VIL2, while DCN, CLDN19, ITGA7, and ITGA5 were downregulated at this anatomic site. PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the array findings for BCAR1, CLDN4, VIL2, and DCN. Our data show that breast carcinoma cells in primary carcinomas and effusions have different gene expression signatures, and differentially express a large number of molecules related to adhesion, motility, and metastasis. These differences may have a critical role in designing therapy and in prognostication for patients with metastatic disease localized to the serosal cavities.
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