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Recent Developments in the Nasal Immunization against Anthrax  [PDF]
Sandra Jesus, Olga Borges
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2011.13008
Abstract: Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a bacterial infection with a high mortality rate [1-3]. Although anthrax infection can be cutaneous, gastrointestinal or pulmonary, the pulmonary form is the most deadly [2,3]. Thus, the release of Bacillus anthracis spores that can be inhaled represents a potent bioterrorism threat; the capacity of B. anthracis spores to act as a bioterrorism weapon was demonstrated in 2001, with the intentional infection of 22 persons in the U.S.A. [2,4]. Until recently, the available vaccines were developed to confer protection against cutaneous infection; despite this, these vaccines demonstrated experimental efficacy against pulmonary infection in multiple animal models [1,2]. Nevertheless, there are many limitations for these vaccines to be considered successful and effective vaccine, including the intensity of the required vaccination schedule, the administration route and the presence of local adverse effects experienced after vaccination [1,3,5,6]. To develop more efficient vaccines against pulmonary anthrax, intranasal formulations with adjuvant have been studied. These formulations have advantages because they are easy to administer and because they are expected to induce both systemic and respiratory tract mucosal immune responses. Therefore, the main goal of this review is to compare the different experimental adjuvants used with anthrax antigens and the different approaches regarding the vaccination schedule and consecutive boosters.
Democracia vs. eficiência: a teoria da escolha pública
Borges, André;
Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-64452001000200008
Abstract: the way in which the emphasis of public choice theory on managerial efficiency through the development of the bureaucratic organization conflicts with the political dimension of social life, specially in its democratic variant, is examined. democracy and efficiency are incompatible, it is argued; they are brought apart by re-distributive issues.
Dinamica político-eleitoral, burocracia e gasto social estadual
Borges, André;
Caderno CRH , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-49792010000100007
Abstract: this paper analyzes the effects of decentralization of authority and fiscal resources on processes and results of public policies. it seeks to trace the connections between electoral politics, bureaucracy, formulation and implementation of social policies in the sphere of states. it focuses on the political construction and renovation of state schools in bahia over two terms (1999-2002 and 2003-2006). this paper concentrates on the impact of electoral and party politics over the allocation of investments in the secretary of education between the municipalities of the state, and also examines the role of appointments of senior positions in the sectorial bureaucracy in the construction of public policy. the analysis relies on a multimethod strategy, which combines multivariate statistical models and traditional techniques of case studies.
Rethinking state politics: the withering of state dominant machines in Brazil
Borges,André;
Brazilian Political Science Review (Online) , 2007,
Abstract: research on brazilian federalism and state politics has focused mainly on the impact of federal arrangements on national political systems, whereas comparative analyses of the workings of state political institutions and patterns of political competition and decision-making have often been neglected. the article contributes to an emerging comparative literature on state politics by developing a typology that systematizes the variation in political competitiveness and the extent of state elites? control over the electoral arena across brazilian states. it relies on factor analysis to create an index of " electoral dominance" , comprised of a set of indicators of party and electoral competitiveness at the state level, which measures state elites? capacity to control the state electoral arena over time. based on this composite index and on available case-study evidence, the article applies the typological classificatory scheme to all 27 brazilian states. further, the article relies on the typological classification to assess the recent evolution of state-level political competitiveness. the empirical analysis demonstrates that state politics is becoming more competitive and fragmented, including in those states that have been characterized as bastions of oligarchism and political bossism. in view of these findings, the article argues that the power of state political machines rests on fragile foundations: in brazil?s multiparty federalism, vertical competition between the federal and state governments in the provision of social policies works as a constraint on state bosses? machine-building strategies. it is concluded that our previous views on state political dynamics are in serious need of re-evaluation.
As novas configura??es do mercado de trabalho urbano no Brasil: notas para discuss?o
Borges, ?ngela;
Caderno CRH , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-49792010000300012
Abstract: this paper investigates the impact of changes recorded between 2002 and 2009 in the urban labor market in brazil on the workers, taking into account its segmentation into groups resulting from the intersection of the dimensions of age, sex and education. in it we make a brief analysis of the changes observed in these seven years in the socio-demographic profile of the population of working age to, then, investigate the levels of occupation, unemployment and the formalization of the various segments of workers defined from those variables .to that end, we constructed and analyzed a set of indicators, based on data from the national survey by home sampling (in portuguese, pnad), that account for labor market insertion of young men and women, adults and elderly according to education level and the new settings of the labor market that emerge in the expansionary cycle of the economy over the last seven years.
ética burocrática, mercado e ideologia administrativa: contradi??es da resposta conservadora à "crise de caráter" do Estado
Borges, André;
Dados , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0011-52582000000100004
Abstract: in the 1980s, a conservative movement for public sector reforms attempted to adjust civil servants? (alleged) egotistical, amoral behavior to the efficient achievement of collective goals, in accordance with the principles of adam smith?s invisible hand. based on karl polanyi?s and max weber?s classic works on the establishment of the market and of modern bureaucracy, respectively, the article endeavors to show how the conservative approach errs by ignoring the specificities of bureaucratic organization as well as the socially constructed character of the market mentality. the conclusion is that public sector reforms based on the assumption of self-interest end up breeding suspicion and fostering precisely the corrupt behavior that they are meant to forestall, thereby reinforcing the state?s incapacity to properly manage its actions in the social sphere.
Governan?a e política educacional: a agenda recente do banco mundial
Borges, André;
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-69092003000200007
Abstract: in the last decade, the agenda of policies of the world bank has shifted from narrow macroeconomic reforms and structural adjustment to public sector reforms leading to "good government" and the empowerment of civil society. the objective of this essay is to obtain a broad understanding of the underlying political rationale of the new development agenda of the world bank, concerning aspects of institutional capacity, participation, and improvement of social conditions. the argument to be developed is that the bank has become more acutely aware that the success of its development framework depends on deep processes of social and political engineering. with its emphasis on improving social conditions and strengthening civil society, social services reforms advocated by the world bank have the purpose of building a wide consensus, contributing to promote political stability and foster free market capitalism. in this sense, in spite of the rhetoric of a bank of "apolitical development," its recent agenda implies a normative preference for specific attributes of western variants of liberal democracy.
Forma??o inicial de professores de Física: formar mais! Formar melhor!
Borges, Oto;
Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física , 2006,
Abstract: to improve the teaching of physics in brazil i recognize that it is necessary an increase in the number of annually graduated teachers. but this is not enough or sufficient; at the same time it is essential to improve the initial education of teachers. the works of some recognized physicists were used to argue alternatives and principles that could help to improve the initial education of physics teachers. both can be extended to the teaching of physics for other undergraduate courses.
Impactos do desemprego e da precariza??o sobre famílias metropolitanas
Borges, ?ngela;
Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Popula??o , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-30982006000200002
Abstract: this article addresses the consequences of the crisis in the labor market for families living in the greater metropolitan areas of salvador, belo horizonte and porto alegre, brazil. based on data from the pnad for the period between 1995 and 2004, it presents a brief diagnosis of the family structures in these regions and their respective labor markets and analyzes the behavior of unemployment and the process of growing instability. it then identifies the types of families that have been affected by these processes and the distribution of the main risks related to the labor market in terms of persons' positions in the family, separating the differences among the three regions studied. finally, the article discusses the extent to which the stage reached by unemployment and instability in each region can be explained by the particularities of a family structure, or if, on the contrary, the characteristics of its economy and the resulting impacts imposed by the productive restructuring are determining factors for growing in stability and changes in family structures.
Já n?o se fazem mais máquinas políticas como antigamente: competi??o vertical e mudan?a eleitoral nos estados brasileiros
Borges, André;
Revista de Sociologia e Política , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-44782010000100011
Abstract: this work seeks to supply elements for understanding the changes that can be verified within the country's poorest and least electorally-competitive states. our goal is to identify the factors that underlie a series of victories obtained by center-left coalitions during state election in 2002 and 2006, parallel to the weakening of old political bosses. two hypotheses are elaborated in order to explain these transformations. first, we argue that, within the multi-party federalism that has been built in brazil, vertical competition between federal and state governments in terms of public policy supply acts to constrain clientelist strategies and state political bosses' electoral control. in the second place, the article argues that the brazilian electoral system tends to promote political fragmentation and increase the costs for forming winning coalitions, while at the same time the absence of strong political parties makes it harder to stabilize inter-elite competition and the patronage networks controlled by state governments. . empirical analysis is supported by analytical techniques of linear regression and simple linear correlation, in order to explore connections between national and state politics throughout the 1990s and the year 2000. finally, we engage in a detailed analysis of the decline of the pfl (partido da frente liberal - liberal front party) political machine in bahia, which was in control over state politics for decades, in conjunction with the worker's party (partido dos trabalhadores - pt) victory in the 2006 elections for governor. this part of the paper develops a model of linear regression in order to test the impact of local political dynamics and federal expenditures on fighting poverty (bolsa família) on the pt's 2006 electoral performance. we end by concluding that brazilian democratic institutions conspire against the survival of political bosses at the state level, pointing to the need to re-evaluate established viewpoints on state politi
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