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Higher Education in the United States and Brazil: How the Two Systems Origins Shaped Their Further Development  [PDF]
Arabela Campos Oliven
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.518184
Abstract: This article draws a parallel between higher education in the United States and Brazil placing emphasis on its different origins. The college tradition in the United States began with Harvard in the seventeenth century soon after the pioneers settled in the new land. These institutions were private, closer to their Board of Trustees than to the British Crown, and had a deeply religious character. Since one of their objectives was to train religious leaders, character formation was very valued. Located far from city centers, colleges used to operate as almost a total institution. The first Brazilian higher education institutions were created in the early nineteenth century when the Portuguese Royal family left Lisbon for its colony, Brazil. Schools of Medicine, Law, Pharmacy, etc. were called Faculdades. Highly elitist they were located in large cities. They followed the model of Napoleonic Great French Schools, which were secular institutions aimed at training professionals. United States and Brazil have quite different higher education systems, but both still sustain, to a large extent, their respective marks of origin and pay tribute to them.
El deber de mejorar: Higiene e identidad obrera en el socialismo madrile?o, 1884-1904
Campos,Ricardo;
Dynamis , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S0211-95362011000200012
Abstract: se pretende analizar la modulación y transformaciones de los discursos y reivindicaciones socialistas en materia sanitaria durante el periodo comprendido entre 1883 y 1904, con el objeto de demostrar su alto grado de politización y su deseo de integración social y política. en este sentido, se analiza el papel político desempe?ado por la salud y la higiene en la construcción de una identidad obrera, así como la tensión y las ambigüedades ideológicas generadas por la necesidad de apropiarse de un discurso ajeno, emitido desde la ciencia, pero necesario para conseguir plantear reivindicaciones que perseguían la inclusión social de los obreros como ciudadanos de pleno derecho y su dignificación.
Vivendo com a guerra: uma entrevista com o Sr. A. Fortuna
Campos, ?ngela;
Estudos Históricos (Rio de Janeiro) , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-21862009000100003
Abstract: in recent years, the war memory theory field has been developing enormously, and oral history has been one of its most powerful tools for accessing personal and collective memories. this methodology has been instrumental in recovering and/or collecting experiences of war, violence and trauma. for some individuals, war is ever present, it is a constant, indelible memory visible in one's body: when an ex-combatant is disabled for life, he has to live with war permanently and his past experience is necessarily life shaping. this paper is based on the testimony of mr. a. fortuna, a lived example of this reality, one of the estimated 30,000 disabled war veterans (ribeiro, 1999) of the portuguese colonial war (1961-1974), who was interviewed for a dphil research project on the memories of its ex-combatants. in 1971, a. fortuna, now aged 59, lost his eyesight and both arms in guinea-bissau, something which subsequently meant a life entirely shaped by the war and his disability. this conflict's memory - notwithstanding the fact that this is a major event in 20th century portuguese history - remains largely unexplored. some authors point out that 'the shame reached such an extent that after 1974 the colonial war was cautiously swept away from the collective memory' (ribeiro, 1999) and its ex-combatants are covered by 'a suffocating veil of silence and neglect' (gomes, 2004), especially the war disabled, uncomfortable reminders of a war the nation is not willing to remember. taking mr. fortuna's interview as a starting point, this paper reflects on some of the challenges an oral historian has to face when interviewing disabled war veterans. it aims at presenting an example of how oral history can shed some light on a less visible topic of portuguese contemporary history.
Entre as luzes e as sombras da cidade: visibilidade e invisibilidade no graffiti
Campos,Ricardo;
Etnográfica , 2009,
Abstract: an ethnographic research developed within the graffiti community of lisbon is the starting point for a reflection regarding the social condition of the young members of this community. the graffiti writers live between two social and cultural universes, building complex strategies of managing identity and everyday life. graffiti represents, for many young people, a ground for struggle and transgression, a chance to reject the law and the hegemonic norms, an arena where they experiment risk, excitement and, sometimes, painful sanctions. this complex and paradoxical social universe inspires the author to analyze subjects such as the relation between the margins and the center, identity construction in the contemporary world, visuality and anonymity in the city.
Nos caminhos da Luz, antigos palacetes da elite paulistana
Campos, Eudes;
Anais do Museu Paulista: História e Cultura Material , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-47142005000100002
Abstract: the present article is dedicated to recover the memory of the old mansions built in the region of luz railway station, from the beginning of the second half of the 19th century onwards. it was around that time that the region became s?o paulo elite's first residential neighbourhood, concentrating mansions that expressed the local elaborations of architectural neo-classicism and eclecticism. one intends to approach the interpretation processes that characterised such architectural production.
Chalés paulistanos
Campos, Eudes;
Anais do Museu Paulista: História e Cultura Material , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-47142008000100003
Abstract: this article studies the origins, flourishment and decadence of a certain style of building, known as swiss cottages or chalets, in the urban environment of sao paulo. its source is found in 19th century romanticism and in the last quarter of the eighteen hundreds this kind of construction was very popular. at this time it had taken on a high symbolic value - although of an ambiguous nature - for it was both intimately associated to an idealization of country life and to technological modernity, which was then being ushered in the city of sao paulo. it became very popular on account of the availability of industrialized construction material for importation and it expanded during a construction boom that attained the city of sao paulo, after 1875. on the downfall of brazilian monarchy, it gradually disappeared, as it became the object of restrictive measures from the local county, which considered its proliferation unruly. from the beginning of the xxth century, there was a change in public taste and urban reforms were implemented in downtown sao paulo (1902 to 1914), which was followed by a desire for a new urban scene, more in touch with the system of values and interests of hegemonic sectors of the local political elite.
A cidade de S?o Paulo e a era dos melhoramentos materiaes: Obras públicas e arquitetura vistas por meio de fotografias de autoria de Milit?o Augusto de Azevedo, datadas do período 1862-1863
Campos, Eudes;
Anais do Museu Paulista: História e Cultura Material , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-47142007000100002
Abstract: the first photographs of s?o paulo, taken by milit?o augusto de azevedo between 1862 and 1863, are always cited as documentary evidence of the city's backwardness, deterioration, and lethargy in the mid 19th century. however, our view is that things were quite different, based on a reading of prime sources dating back to that period. in fact, the architecture and urban spaces of s?o paulo already showed clear signs of modernization between the years 1850 and 1860, as depicted in azevedo's photographs, which belong to the collection of paulista museum and also of the iconography and museums division of the s?o paulo heritage department.
Imagem e tecnologias visuais em pesquisa social: tendências e desafios
Campos,Ricardo;
Análise Social , 2011,
Abstract: the use of visual technologies in social research has a lasting and turbulent history. the invention of photography, and later of cinema, marked the beginning of a relationship that promised to be long and fruitful, but was, instead, greatly affected by positivist rigors and by academia?s logocentrism. however, in the last decades, we can point to an evident visual drive, revealing a greater dialogue between the social sciences and the image, forcing the re-evaluation of paradigms and procedures. in this article we look at the present state of this association, as well as the possibilities and challenges presented by recent technological innovations.
La relevancia de la custodia de la evidencia en la investigación judicial
Campos,Federico;
Medicina Legal de Costa Rica , 2002,
Abstract: the custody chain of the evidence in the judicial lnvestigation is indispensable and must be garantied at all times with the purpose of ensuring the investigation of the truth in a delictive act will not turn into an ilegal proof because of a defective procesal activity. in this essay we make a generous effort to put together all the laws and rules that have something to give plain cientific guarante of the investigated situation.
Anormalidades Electroencefalográficas y Trastornos de Ansiedad: Posible Relación Etiológica
Campos,J;
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica , 2002,
Abstract: there are evidences about a possible association between anxiety disorders and electroencephalographic abnormalities, many of them epileptiforms. the objective of this study was to investigate the presence of abnormalities in the electroencephalograms (eeg) of a group of 35 non-epileptic patients with anxiety disorders and to evaluate the implications in the treatment of those cases with abnormal eeg. eeg was carried out to all of them and a new treatment was indicated during 6 months. results: 60% of patients had abnormal eeg, 81% of them were focal-temporal. a significant association between the therapeutic response, the abnormal eeg and the treatment with anticonvulsive drugs was observed. the above results point to the possibility that the electric abnormalities, in some groups of patients, are the cause of the anxiety disorders.
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