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Theoretical Considerations about the Steady State Combustion of Wood Char in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Reactor  [PDF]
Carlos Pinho
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.53021
Abstract:

A theoretical study on the performance of steady state bubbling fluidized bed burners is presented using a simple mathematical model. The proposed model has pedagogical and practical advantages due to its simplicity. The calculations, whose results are plotted in several graphics, were based on data obtained in laboratory scale experiments. The experiments were carried out with wood chars and the model allows a proper evaluation of physical and chemical phenomena taking place inside the reactor, as well as a fast approach to the pre-design phase, before going towards more complex and time consuming numerical modeling. In the first part of the paper the steady state modeling is compared with the combustion of successive batches of char particles. Afterwards, the performance of a 1 m diameter bed operating from 700 to 800 is shown.

Volume of Geodesic Balls in Finsler Manifolds of Hyperbolic Type  [PDF]
Carlos Ogouyandjou
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2014.48050
Abstract:

Let  be a compact Finsler manifold of hyperbolic type, and \"\" be its universal Finslerian covering. In this paper we show that the growth function of the volume of geodesic balls of \"\" is of purely exponential type.

Implementing Good Governance Principles for the Public Sector in Information Technology Governance Frameworks  [PDF]
Carlos Juiz, Carlos Guerrero, Isaac Lera
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2014.31003
Abstract: In this paper, we are showing how Information Technology (IT) governance frameworks contribute to the implementation of the key principles of the good corporate governance, particularly, in the public sector. We demonstrate that there are numerous links, explicitly and implicitly expressed through a set of IT governance instruments, matching the proposals of good governance principles with the behavioral goals of an IT governance framework implementation. We also provide a real experience of using a set of possible instruments, in our public university, through an IT governance framework based on the ISO/IEC 38500 standard. We also present the maturity of the good governance principles implementation with this set of instruments, after governing IT in our university during the period 2007-2013. We show that using an IT governance framework in a public entity mutually reinforces the key principles of good governance, especially the transparency and accountability goals for the IT assets.
Comments on the Article “Improved Hemodynamics with the Use of Prophylactic Infusion of Epinephrine and or Norepinephrine during Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)”  [PDF]
Carlos Galhardo Jr., Carlos Darcy Alves Bersot
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2015.510039
Abstract: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a new therapeutic option to treat patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, and a prohibitive mortality risk for conventional surgical AVR2. A thorough understanding of the procedural steps involved in TAVR is imperative for all components of the heart time. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty under rapid ventricular pacing is one of the main procedural steps, and is usually performed before valve insertion to enable passage of the prosthesis through the stenotic native aortic valve. Hemodynamic collapse necessitating prompt intervention may occur at different stages during the procedure.
Freedom of Conscience is Freedom of Choice: Women’s Reproductive Needs, Rights, and their Therapeutic Implications  [PDF]
Carlos M. Del Rio
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.23028
Abstract: Using reasonableness, we examine the U.S. Catholic bishops’ opposition to provisions of the Affordable Care Act of 2010. Weaving contributions from theology, philosophy, and jurisprudence, we emphasize the reasonable importance of mental health therapy for women within a relevant Catholic/Christian dialogue, particularly in the wake of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision on healthcare. We principally identify socially imbedded factors that contribute to ending unwanted pregnancies, and argue that freedom of conscience is indeed freedom of choice within which women’s reproductive needs lie under protections of the U.S. Constitution. We recognize that Catholic tradition originates in the words and behaviors of Jesus. Examining closely these actions toward women, we find no reasonable justification for the bishops’ position against women’s freedom of conscience. We also discovered that revelation does not belong exclusively to the bishops; truth continues to be revealed to all human consciences, and true freedom does not allow for coercion/castigation of dogmatic import. We advocate for women’s ability to openly discuss their struggles to meet their reproductive condundra and to deconstruct their sexual stereotypes in mental health therapy. We provide crucial recommendations to augment choices for women’s reproduction condundra, and incite the need for new epistemic frameworks to address the complexity of female sexuality.
Computer Aided Call for Tenders: A Tool for Software Bidding  [PDF]
Jorge Hochstetter, Carlos Cares
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.77055
Abstract:

Under a broad comprehension of Software Engineering, it is preferred the term software life cycle instead of just software production. The reason is that cycle starts at software conception and stops when the software is relegated. Given contemporary companies’ market strategies of focusing on their competitive advantages, most of them have externalized their software production to outsourced services. Therefore, the call for software tenders has become a common step in the software life cycle. In this paper, we present a tool which aids non-experts to specify call for software tenders. The motivation was Chile situation of most of rural and semi-urban city halls which do not have engineering teams to build call for software tenders. We describe the problem in terms of lack of competitiveness and empty biddings generated by low quality calls for tenders. As a second step, we show the technical considerations to develop the proposed tool and its features. We include an initial tool perception from a first group of users.

Economic Aspects of Omnipotence  [PDF]
Francisco Carlos Ribeiro
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.43024
Abstract: This article purposes that omnipotence feelings are the best issue to explain the relationship between ostentation and socio-economic behavior. According to my propositions, we would better comprehend the mechanisms of ostentation in our society, and its consequences not only to the economy, but also to income redistribution initiatives, if we understand the interaction among omnipotence, commodity fetishism concepts and cultural values. The article also purposes in this direction, to measure the commodity fetishism degree as a valuable tool for economics.
Effects of Solar UV Radiation on Materials Used in Agricultural Industry in Salta, Argentina: Study and Characterization  [PDF]
Carlos Cadena, Delicia Acosta
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2014.24001
Abstract: The current study presents the characterization of three types of materials after exposure to solar UV radiation. The selection of the materials is related to socio-economic aspects and rural activities in the northwest of Argentina (a.k.a. NOA). The objective was to establish a time parameter that allows estimating the durability of the materials according to their use. One of the materials is used as a protective cover (polyethylene film) of greenhouses, which are used for crop cultivation in the area. Another material is used in photovoltaic modules (PVMs), which are used to supply energy in isolated areas and the third material is sunscreen used by people that are exposed to UV radiation during rural activities. Degradation or deterioration of the materials was monitored using different spectroscopic assays: infrared was used to detect any structural changes in the material, X-rays were used for possible changes in the crystalline structure of the material, and spectral transmittance as this property is likely to be affected by changes in the structure of the material. The results showed that degradation of polyethylene seems to be related to the diminution in transparency and the loss of mechanical resistance with increasing exposure time. The decrease in transparency of one of the layers of a PVM caused a considerable decrease in the energy generated, whereas the sunscreens with a low sun protection factor (SPF) rapidly lost their protective properties and changed their photostability properties. Our results revealed a relationship between relative transmittance loss and exposure timse, which allows estimating the stability of different materials.
Evaluation of Activity Patterns in Quinpirole-Treated Rats  [PDF]
Carlos L. Paíno
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.47030
Abstract: The present study aims to evaluate in rats the activity changes associated to treatments with D2-like receptor agonists using a simple behavioral procedure. Rats receiving a single dose of 1 mg/kg quinpirole or vehicle were scored for 6 spontaneous behaviors at different post-injection times. In each time point, the animals were placed in testing cages for 12 min and video-recorded during the last 2 min. The number of forelimb steps and the time spent sniffing were significantly increased by 15 min post-injection in the quinpirole group. Forelimb steps remained increased for at least 24 h. Scores of time spent sniffing, as well as time inactive and number of hindlimb steps appeared greatly altered at 90 and 180 min, but not at later time points. By 48 h, no differences between control and quinpirole-treated rats were observed. In conclusion, the simple behavioral procedure here proposed—or adaptations of it—provides a sensitive test to evaluate the time course of the effects of D2-like receptor agonists on rat spontaneous activity. Additionally, this test takes into account context-dependent sensitization. It can be adapted to different treatment conditions. This methodology would be useful for the preclinical screening of D2-like receptor drugs, using reduced numbers of animals to test those doses and treatment schedules producing less side-effects.
Currency Areas: Public Debt, Inflation and Unemployment  [PDF]
Carlos Encinas-Ferrer
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2014.44021
Abstract: Can public debt, inflation and unemployment tell us something about optimal or not optimal currency areas? In this paper, I compare the behavior of these variables in two countries, Mexico and the United States of America (USA), along with the member countries of the Euro Zone (European Monetary Union, or EMU). The main purpose is to know the divergence between public debt, average inflation ﹣0% in the graphs—in the main cities or regions of the first two, and compare them with the countries of the EMU. The period of 2001-2012 is chosen to be the years in which the Euro has been circulating among member countries of the Monetary Union (EMU). We find significant differences that allow us to determine the faults that the criteria of divergence on these variables had on the founding treaty of the European Monetary Union.
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