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Application of Statistical Methods to Assess Carbon Monoxide Pollution Variations within an Urban Area  [PDF]
Carmen Capilla
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2012.325090
Abstract: In recent years there have been considerable new legislation and efforts by vehicle manufactures aimed at reducing pollutant emission to improve air quality in urban areas. Carbon monoxide is a major pollutant in urban areas, and in this study we analyze monthly carbon monoxide (CO) data from Valencia City, a representative Mediterranean city in terms of its structure and climatology. Temporal and spatial trends in pollution were recorded from a monitoring net- work that consisted of five monitoring sites. A multiple linear model, incorporating meteorological parameters, annual cycles, and random error due to serial correlation, was used to estimate the temporal changes in pollution. An analysis performed on the meteorologically adjusted data reveals a significant decreasing trend in CO concentrations and an annual seasonal cycle. The model parameters are estimated by applying the least-squares method. The standard error of the parameters is determined while taking into account the serial correlation in the residuals. The decreasing trend im- plies to a certain extent an improvement in the air quality of the study area. The seasonal cycle shows variations that are mainly associated with traffic and meteorological patterns. Analysis of the stochastic spatial component shows that most of the intersite covariances can be analyzed using an exponential variogram model.
Brief Note on a Scalar Quantum Field with Finite Lifetime in a Lorentz Invariant Non-Rectangular Euclidean Space  [PDF]
Carmen Tornow
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.514135
Abstract:

A not necessary rectangular Euclidean space (NoNRES) is constructed, in which one obtains a generally Lorentz invariant scalar product for the low energy sector (LES). This sector is defined for energies below the Planckian limit. If the energy is zero, the NoNRES becomes rectangular and due to the Lorentz invariance, it is applicable for the complete LES of the theory. In contrast to the usual Minkowski space the metric of the NoNRES depends on the kinetic energy of the observed quantum particles. It is assumed that this metric may be useful to derive the scattering cross-section of the corresponding quantum field theory. This assumption is related to the occurrence of divergent loop momentum integrals caused by including the infinite energy range above the Planckian limit (high energy sector or HES). Due to its energy dependence, the metric in both energy sectors differs. In the HES, it depends on the effective dimension of the NoNRES. This dependency results from fluctuations of the space-time above the Planckian limit. Even if they are not part of the theory (as they would be in quantum gravity), these fluctuations should not be ignored. The effective dimension decreases if the energy of the considered particle increases. Since this is true for the HES only, the ultraviolet divergences of loop integrals seem to vanish without distorting the results of the LES. The mechanism is illustrated by calculating the tadpole integral occurring for a simple self-interacting scalar quantum field (with the Higgs mass as example). One obtains a finite contribution for the integral and consequently for the lifetime of the scalar particle.

Wolbachia induces sexual isolation in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans  [PDF]
Ialah Gazla, Maria Carmen Carracedo
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2011.12005
Abstract: Wolbachia are a group of intracellular bacteria, ma-ternally transmitted from infected females to their offspring, which affect a wide range of arthropods. Their presence is associated with Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI) in crosses between infected males and uninfected females and between populations carrying different strains of Wolbachia. The negative influence of Wolbachia a infection on progeny fitness in incompatible crosses can be considered a first step in the appearance of reproductive isolation between infected and uninfected individuals. In this work, we examined the possibility of assortative mating in response to Wolbachia infection, a response that evolved as an incipient mechanism of sexual isolation in the species D. melanogaster and D. simulans. We found that the females of each species could detect the presence of the bacterium in the other sex and chose to mate with males who had the same state of infection, whereas the males randomly attempted to mate with both infected and uninfected females. Thus, Wolbachia may act as an additive factor influencing sexual isolation in Drosophila populations and may play a role in speciation events.
Nanomaterials for Drugs Delivery  [PDF]
Francisco Márquez, Carmen Morant
Soft Nanoscience Letters (SNL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/snl.2014.43007
Abstract:

As expected for years, nanotechnology has revolutionized engineering, biology, chemistry, physics and medicine of today. These disciplines are evolving thanks to the ongoing development of new materials and applications. Nanomedicine, as application of nanotechnology in the field of health care, has undergone unprecedented development. Some of these changes have real applications as, for example, the use of nanoparticles in MRI imaging, in hyperthermia, in immunotherapy, or to improve the bioavailability of drugs, among others [1]-[3].

When a drug is administered to a patient, the blood distributes it throughout the body. In the case of very localized diseases (i.e. tumors), only a small fraction of the drug reaches the target. Chemotherapy is one of the most aggressive treatment options used in some types of cancer, and is usually administered intravenously. In this type of therapy, the drug circulates throughout the body, reaching and destroying healthy and cancerous tissues, producing side effects throughout the body, sometimes with serious consequences for the health of the patient (nephrotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy, anemia, etc.). Among the many applications of nanotechnology, the fabrication of nanostructures capable of safely transporting these drugs is seen as a strategy for reducing these side effects. Nanoparticles are able to carry and release the drug in the right place and with the required dose, greatly reducing the problems associated with direct treatment with these drugs.

In recent years, there have been continuous improvements in the design and development of new tailor-made drug delivery systems [4], including hollow magnetic nanoparticles, liposomal structures, dendrimers, nanoporous silicon, etc. These structures can be obtained with different molecular weights (in the case of polymers), structures, shapes, and even with the appropriate functional groups for interaction at the desired positions. However, a great effort is still required to solve many of the current problems [5], including toxicity, aggregation, solubility and stability in the human body, physiological processes of elimination, identification of targets by highly specific receptors, controlled drug release over time, etc.

Nanomaterials for Sensor Applications  [PDF]
Francisco Márquez, Carmen Morant
Soft Nanoscience Letters (SNL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/snl.2015.51001
Abstract: Recently, a large part of the advances in nanotechnology have been directed towards the development of high-speed electronics, more efficient catalysts, and sensors. This latter group of applications has great relevance and unprecedented development potential for the coming years.So far, some of the main objectives for the development of sensors have focused on making more sensitive, effective and specific sensing devices.The improvement of these systems and the increase of specificity are clearly associated with a decrease in size of the components, which can lead to obtaining more rapid action, almost in real time. Nanomaterials currently used in sensor development include a long list of nanostructured systems, as for example: metal nanotubes, nanowires, nanofibers, nanocomposites, nanorods, nanoparticles, nanostructured polymers, and different allotropes of carbon as carbon nanotubes, graphene or fullerenes, among others.
Topological Aspects of the Product of Lattices
Carmen Vlad
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/920737
Abstract: Let be an arbitrary nonempty set and a lattice of subsets of such that , . ( ) denotes the algebra generated by , and ( ) denotes those nonnegative, finite, finitely additive measures on ( ). In addition, ( ) denotes the subset of ( ) which consists of the nontrivial zero-one valued measures. The paper gives detailed analysis of products of lattices, their associated Wallman spaces, and products of a variety of measures. 1. Introduction It is well known that given two measurable spaces and measures on them, we can obtain the product measurable space and the product measure on that space. The purpose of this paper is to give detailed analysis of product lattices and their associated Wallman spaces and to investigate how certain lattice properties carry over to the product lattices. In addition, we proceed from a measure theoretic point of view. We note that some of the material presented here has been developed from a filter approach by Kost, but the measure approach lends to a generalization of measures and to an easier treatment of topological style lattice properties. 2. Background and Notations In this section we introduce the notation and terminology that will be used throughout the paper. All is fairly standard, and we include it for the reader’s convenience. Let be an arbitrary nonempty set and a lattice of subsets of such that , . A lattice is a partially ordered set any two elements ( ) of which have both and . denotes the algebra generated by ; is the algebra generated by ; is the lattice of all countable intersections of sets from ; is the lattice of arbitrary intersections of sets from ; is the smallest class closed under countable intersections and unions which contains . 2.1. Lattice Terminology The lattice is called: -lattice if is closed under countable intersections; complement generated if implies , , (where prime denotes the complement); disjunctive if for and such that there exists with and ; separating (or ) if and implies there exists such that , ; if for and there exist such that , , and ; normal if for any with there exist with , , and ; compact if for any collection of sets of with , there exists a finite subcollection with empty intersection; countably compact if for any countable collection of sets of with , there exists a finite subcollection with empty intersection. 2.2. Measure Terminology denotes those nonnegative, finite, finitely additive measures on . A measure is called: -smooth on if for all sequences of sets of with , ; -smooth on if for all sequences of sets of with , , that is, countably additive. -regular if for
Biorrestauración de áreas impactadas por crudo por medio de intebios? y biorize?
Infante,Carmen;
Interciencia , 2001,
Abstract: a review of some aspects related to the restoration of areas impacted by crude oil is presented. this is one of the most relevant topics in which the venezuelan oil industry has invested significant efforts through the development of environmentally friendly technological processes. technologies aimed at the recovery of savanna soils and the degree of plant coverage are underscored, as well as the underlying principles and applications of the intebios? technology to treat and bioremediate important amounts of organic wastes, and the use of biorize? to improve and quicken bioremediation processes in sensible areas influenced by the activities of the petroleum industry. as a result of these investigations and their development, during the last five years an extended experience has been amassed, which has conducted to the treatment of more than 300 000 m3 of soils impacted either by crude oil spills or inadequate waste disposal.
LOS PRINCIPIOS DE YOGYAKARTA: HUMAN RIGHTS AT THE SERVICE OF GENDER IDEOLOGY
MARSAL,CARMEN;
Díkaion Revista de Fundamentación Jurídica , 2011,
Abstract: the yogyakarta principles (2007) have as aim the application of human rights in relation to "sexual orientation" and "gender identity". this paper tries to clarify its meaning and ideology, origin, nature and objective -since they are largely hidden-, as well as its powerful influence in spain.
Expansión metropolitana y movilidad: el caso de Caracas
Lizarraga,Carmen;
EURE (Santiago) , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0250-71612012000100005
Abstract: the mode ofurban expansion in caracas metropolitan area (cma) has caused high levels of residential segregation and, at the same time, unequal conditions related to urban mobility and accessibility. deregulation and privatization of the collective transport induced the emergence ofa disorganized and disarticulated sector the big investments in public transport infrastructures, such as the subway or metrocable, did not have the expected effects to reduce the social exclusion or the negative impacts ofthe model (traffic congestion, accidents, pollution). in this work we will analyze the mobility model combined with the expansion model of the cma, through the study of the features of the mobility model and its undesired effects within the latin-american context. we will use the available statistical data and the last theoretical contributions. finally, we willputforward some proposals to achieve sustainable urban mobility.
Efectos a nivel dentario en ni?os asmáticos con uso continuo de corticosteroides inhalados o tomados: Revisión de la literatura.
Villoria,Carmen;
Acta Odontológica Venezolana , 2007,
Abstract: among the literature review information was obtained about the effects at a dental level in asthmatic children as a result of the continuous use of inhaled buccal way or taken corticosteroids ,the cause that origins these effects and the rules that can be applied to prevent its apparition . besides its applied the utility of this information to the estimation that a national study makes over an infantile population that suffer from asthma where taking into account that these medication have to be taken in a continuous way ,they will be exposed to dental lesions if their parents and representatives are not informed about simple dental hygiene recommendations.
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