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Las heurísticas simples se encuentran con la modularidad masiva
Carruthers,Peter;
An??lisis filos?3fico , 2008,
Abstract: this chapter investigates the extent to which claims of massive modular organization of the mind (espoused by some members of the evolutionary psychology research program) are consistent with the main elements of the simple heuristics research program. a number of potential sources of conflict between the two programs are investigated and defused. however, the simple heuristics program turns out to undermine one of the main arguments offered in support of massive modularity, at least as the latter is generally understood by philosophers. so one result of the argument will be to force us to re-examine the way in which the notion of modularity in cognitive science should best be characterized, if the thesis of massive modularity isn't to be abandoned altogether. what is at stake in this discussion, is whether there is a well-motivated notion of "module" such that we have good reason to think that the human mind must be massively modular in its organization. i shall be arguing (in the end) that there is.
Henry Selby Hele-Shaw LLD, DSc, EngD, FRS, WhSch (1854-1941): Engineer, inventor and educationist
Jane Carruthers
South African Journal of Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v106i1/2.119
Abstract: H.S. Hele-Shaw (1854–1941) was one of the most outstanding engineering scientists of his generation and an eminent figure in engineering education during the late-19th and early-20th centuries. His work in hydrodynamics (the Hele-Shaw cell and Hele-Shaw pump) and his important contribution to the successful development of high-speed aircraft (his variable pitch airscrew), continues to be relevant today. In 1922, as President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, he introduced the National Certificate scheme in Britain. It is not well known that Hele-Shaw spent two years in South Africa (1904–1905) attached to the Transvaal Technical Institute, a forerunner of the University of the Witwatersrand. One of only three Fellows of the Royal Society of London in southern Africa in 1905, he was a founder Council member of the Royal Society of South Africa and one of the hosts of the 1905 visit to southern Africa by the British Association for the Advancement of Science. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the time he spent in South Africa and to contextualise it within the larger perspective of his engineering career.
Pilanesberg National Park, North West Province, South Africa: Uniting economic development with ecological design – A history, 1960s to 1984
Jane Carruthers
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v53i1.1028
Abstract: In the late 1970s, a ground-breaking project began in the Pilanesberg district in what is now the North West Province of South Africa to create a wildlife conservation and eco-tourism venture from degraded marginal farmland in an aesthetically attractive extinct volcanic crater. The establishment of this national park was innovative in a number of respects, including a partnership between landscape and ecological designers, local community development and participation, regional tourist satisfaction, trophy hunting, environmental education, ecological restoration, and wildlife conservation and management. This paper briefly explored the park’s early history, explaining its landscape, its early peopling and historical land use. The narrative then concentrated on the first five years of the park’s existence, from its inception in 1977, under the aegis of Agricor, Bophuthatswana’s rural development agency, to 1984, when responsibility for the park was given over to Bophuthatswana National Parks, a parastatal agency, and a new era began. The article contended that 1984 is an appropriate date on which to conclude the early history of the Pilanesberg National Park (PNP) because it was then that the experimental phase of the park ended: its infrastructure was sufficiently developed to offer a satisfactory visitor experience, the management plan was revised, its bureaucratic structures were consolidated and an attitude survey amongst the local community was undertaken. Embedding the originating period of the PNP in its historical, political and socio-economic context, the paper foregrounded those elements in the park’s beginnings that were new in the southern African protected area arena. Thus, elements that relate to socio-politics, landscape and ecological design and restoration, and early relations with neighbouring communities were emphasised. This paper has been written by an historian and is therefore conceptual and historical, conforming in language and structure to the humanities style (environmental history). It relies on published and unpublished literature and oral information and the critical evaluation of these sources. Conservation implications: The pioneering example of the PNP as a protected area is relevant to the field of conservation science because, as human population densities increase, as the tourism sector develops, as marginal farmland becomes available for new uses, and as it becomes important to include neighbouring communities in conservation activities, a study of this park’s early history and socio-political and economic context ma
Romance, reverence, research, rights: Writing about elephant hunting and management in southern Africa, c.1830s to 2008
Jane Carruthers
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v52i1.880
Abstract: The protection and management of large mammals in Africa’s national parks is not a matter to be left solely for the attention of natural science and scientists. The way in which the natural world is conceptualised by the humanities and social sciences is also significant, because nature is cultural as well as scientific. This article is an interdisciplinary appraisal of the manner in which the writing (e.g. discourse, vocabulary) about elephants in various literary and scientific texts has altered over time. It aims to provide an analysis of some of the literature about elephants in order to examine literate society’s changing responses to the hunting and management of elephants in southern Africa over the past two centuries. The review suggests that new research questions regarding animal cognition and empathy have been generated by these changing attitudes, in conjunction with fresh directions in ecological understanding. Conservation implications: Biodiversity conservation is an inexact science, and even the distinction between conservation research and conservation management is not clear-cut. Moreover, a degree of emotion is evident in scientific and popular discussions around what should be ‘saved’ and how best this might be achieved. Nature is cultural as well as scientific and interdisciplinary insights from the humanities and social sciences may beneficially inform protected area management. How to cite this article: Carruthers, J., 2010, ‘Romance, reverence, research, rights: Writing about elephant hunting and management in southern Africa, c.1830s to 2008’, Koedoe 52(1), 6 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v52i1.880
Mapungubwe: an historical and contemporary analysis of a World Heritage cultural landscape
Jane Carruthers
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2006, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v49i1.89
Abstract: The Mapungubwe World Heritage cultural landscape, situated on the farm Greefswald at the junction of the Limpopo and Shashi rivers on the border of South Africa, Zimbabwe and Botswana, falls under the management of South African National Parks. This article presents a close examination of contemporary and historical issues around the inscription of the site and argues that the value of places is not self-evident but that significance is culturally constructed. This, as is explained here in respect of Mapungubwe, has changed over time and has been imposed by the concerns, aspirations and values of society at a specific time and within a specific context. Basic facts about Mapungubwe are provided and its importance as a contemporary economic and cultural driver is outlined. A brief history of Mapungubwe’s inclusion in a national park from 1947 to 1949 is presented, as is the archaeological science that it spawned. The effect that the inscription of Mapungubwe may have on elevating South Africa’s international profile and on African national pride is described.
'Police boys' and poachers: Africans, wildlife protection and national parks, the Transvaal 1902 to 1950
Jane Carruthers
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1993, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v36i2.371
Abstract: The concentration on pure scientific research in the Kruger National Park has resulted in a neglect of a humanistic approach to nature conservation issues. The lack of human and political dimensions in important scientific contributions are serious short-comings in the light of present politico-environmental concerns. The impact of race and class on wildlife protection needs to be integrated. Scientifically sound but culturally chauvinistic protectionist strategies have been imposed upon disadvantaged African communities unable to articulate or formulate alternatives. African participation has usually either been ignored or relegated to patronizing and oversimplified accounts of Africans in the roles of 'native rangers' or 'poachers'. This police-poacher view is countered by an over-simplified African perception of national parks as being of benefit only to elitist white recreation. These divergent perceptions have important implications for the future of nature protection in South Africa.
The Pongola Game Reserve: an Eco-Political Study
E.J. Carruthers
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1985, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v28i1.531
Abstract: The Pongola Game Reserve, which existed from 1894 to 1921, is placed in its historical context. The attitudes of its administrators are explored and use is made of previously neglected archival material.
Farming in crisis and the voice of silence - a response to David Atkinson
S. P. Carruthers
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2002,
Abstract: In considering the role of religious assumptions in making environmental decisions in agriculture, the idea of sabbath is proposed as offering a radical critique of the present agricultural situation and a robust, holistic basis for agricultural ethics. The sabbath, with its emphasis on restraint, including in the use of the land, complements stewardship, which emphasises care and responsibility. In the current farming crisis, the sabbath urges us to recgonise and respect both people and the earth, to subordinate the pursuite of private wealth to meeting the needs of the poor and vulnerable, and to restrain the concentration of power and control.
Appetite for a Foodborne Infection
Vern B. Carruthers
PLOS Pathogens , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005124
Abstract:
Cosmic alignment of the aether
Isaac Carruthers,Ted Jacobson
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.83.024034
Abstract: In Einstein-aether theory and Horava gravity, a timelike unit vector is coupled to the spacetime metric. It has previously been shown that in an exponentially expanding homogeneous, isotropic background, small perturbations of the vector relax back to the isotropic frame. Here we investigate large deviations from isotropy, maintaining homogeneity. We find that, for generic values of the coupling constants, the aether and metric relax to the isotropic configuration if the initial aether hyperbolic boost angle and its time derivative in units of the cosmological constant are less than something of order unity. For larger angles or angle derivatives, the behavior is strongly dependent on the values of the coupling constants. Generally there is runaway behavior, in which the anisotropy increases with time, and/or singularities occur.
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