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Theories of Punishment in the Age of Mass Incarceration: A Closer Look at the Empirical Problem Silenced by Justificationism (The Brazilian Case)  [PDF]
Salo Carvalho
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2013.14006
Abstract:

The paper examines three central problems involving punitive social control in recent decades: first, the steady increase in the number of incarcerated people (the phenomenon of great confinement), with special emphasis on the Brazilian case; second, the way criminology interprets contemporary confinement (New Penology); and finally, the lack of a (dogmatic) criminal law theory on the reality of mass incarceration. Incarceration data are presented here as premises in order to inquire about the relations between the (normative-philosophical) theories regarding the justification of punishment and the (empirical) phenomena of mass incarceration. The questions behind the current reflection are therefore about what role criminal theories play in the expansion or contraction of the power to punish (potestas puniendi) and the explanations the justification models offer to the problem of hyper-punishment.

On the Possibilities of a Queer Criminology: Homophobia as the Object of Study in the Criminal Sciences—A Perspective Based on the Brazilian Reality  [PDF]
Salo Carvalho
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.21001
Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to approach queer theories and the critical perspectives of criminology in Brazil by analyzing both the conditions of the possibility and the implications of a queer criminology. Homophobic violence is seen here as the object of study of a queer criminological perspective, whose ambition is the construction of a qualified perspective that is aware of diversity, concerned with human rights and, above all, non-discriminating towards the (positive and negative) political demands of social movements represented by gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transsexuals.

Endoscopic Adenoidectomy Secondary to Druginduced Trismus  [PDF]
Mark Greenberg, Daniela Carvalho
Surgical Science (SS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2010.11006
Abstract: We present the case of a 4 year old girl whose adenoidectomy had to be performed via an endoscopictrans oral approach due to the unexpected inability to fully open the mouth during the procedure. The patient had previously been taking Risperidone for behavioral symptoms associated with her autism. The jaw tone returned to normal following the procedure and there were no complications. An interaction between the Risperidone and the anesthetics were the likely cause of the trismus.
A psicologia frente a educa??o e o trabalho docente
Carvalho, Diana Carvalho de;
Psicologia em Estudo , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-73722002000100008
Abstract: the influence of psychology on constructing the pedagogic principles at the beginning of the 20th century had as its scenario a great number of children entering schools in the industrialized societies and the advent of evolutionist ideas which pointed out the absolute necessity to study and understand children?s development. among the themes which run through educational debates and occurred all along the century and, until today are present, we can highlight: the relation between development and learning, the importance of education in developing psychism, and the teacher role in the teaching/learning process. the purpose of the present article is to examine how these themes appear in the thoughts of j.dewey, e. claparède, j. piaget, h. wallon, and l.s. vygotsky. it is possible to identify two differing groups in relation to these themes: (i) those who subordinate the pedagogical process to the development of the child?s cognitive structure, considering that the basic content to be developed by education is the thinking process itself; (ii) those who consider that there is a definite role to be played by the school, that of teaching scientific and social relevant contents, that is to say, enable the child to control the knowledge demanded by society, considering that such learning process is one of the main vehicles of development.
N?o se deve identificar for?a explosiva com potência muscular, ainda que existam algumas rela??es entre ambas
Carvalho,Carlos; Carvalho,Alberto;
Revista Portuguesa de Ciências do Desporto , 2006,
Abstract: the aim of this paper is to search for the difference between explosive strength and muscular power. in spite of both being expressions of speed-strength, they depend on very different factors, have distinct characteristics and need specific and independent methods and methodologies. to sum it all up, it can be said that explosive strength training should be done with maximum loads and the maximum rate of velocity of muscular contraction so that a sufficient nervous activation can be achieved in the intramuscular factors (recruitment, firing frequency and synchronism of nervous stimulus). contrarily to this, power should be trained with medium loads but with high speed of execution of any specific motor action and/or sequences, therefore falling on a more technical or coordinative training. we can deduce from all this that these two expressions of speed-strength should not be identified as synonyms of the same physical abilities.
Organic Monadology in Maupertuis  [PDF]
Maurício de Carvalho Ramos
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.41003
Abstract: The present paper aims to define the seminal parts in the generation theory in Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis’s System of nature as Leibnizian physical monads of a special type, organic monads, whose main characteristics are: 1) uniting, within the same explanatory system, epigenesis and preformation, following from an interpretation where initial conditions for epigenesis are a homogenous, non-organic seminal matter; 2) having psychic properties which give them a preformational character, allowing seminal parts to display a combination of material and representational morphologies, elaborated from a distinction between the substantial and relational character of chemical affinities proposed by Fran?ois-Geoffroy; 3) bringing, through the previous two characteristics, the System of nature to intelligibly express preexistence, a concept present in Maupertuis’ conjectures on the origins of the first organisms, where to a strongly naturalistic scenario, a supernatural cause is added—one consistent, within limits, with the natural indestructibility of the physical monad within a panspermic reading of the original Leibnizian monadology. Together, these characteristics allow us to define Maupertuis’s generation theory as an organic monadology, capable of expressing itself in other components of the modern sciences of life and the organic, revealing a historical continuity for the heuristics of Leibniz’s natural philosophy.
Box dimension, oscillation and smoothness in function spaces
Abel Carvalho
Journal of Function Spaces and Applications , 2005, DOI: 10.1155/2005/405979
Abstract: The aim of this paper is twofold. First we relate upper and lower box dimensions with oscillation spaces, and we develop embeddings or inclusions between oscillation spaces and Besov spaces. Secondly, given a point in the (1p, s)-plane we determine maximal and minimal values for the upper box dimension (also the maximal value for lower box dimension) for the graphs of continuous real functions with a compact support, represented by this point.
Phase 1 cardiovascular rehabilitation: be aggressive?
Vitor Carvalho
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8090-6-140
Abstract: The study by Moreno et al [4] is very important and adds important information to what we know about respiratory function and physiotherapy after cardiac surgery. This study aimed to assess the pulmonary function in patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery treated with a physiotherapy protocol. The authors showed that the day 3 after cardiac surgery showed the worst values of forced vital capacity, maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure in the follow up of 30 days. However, the authors did not show data about the incidence of atelectasis and pulmonary complications along the follow up. The results showed by Moreno et al [4], raised some questions: should physiotherapists be more aggressive in the third day after surgery? If yes, could the aggressive intervention impact in lung complications and survival?This way, new trials are important to elucidate the best physiotherapy strategy in patients after cardiac surgery. Moreover, to investigate if an aggressive physiotherapy in the worst period of lung function after cardiac surgery decreases the incidence of atelectasis, pulmonary complications and improves patients survival.
Left atrial volume and exercise capacity in adult heart transplant recipients
Vitor Carvalho
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8090-6-9
Abstract: The study by Abdul-Waheed et al. [6] is very interesting and adds important information to what we know about cardiac causes of exercise capacity limitations in heart transplant recipients. This retrospective study investigated the left atrial volume (LAV, n = 50) and its change along one year (ΔLAV, n = 40) in transplant recipients.The main find of the study by Abdul-Waheed et al was the increasing of the LAV along the one year follow-up and the modest correlation between LAV (r = 0.3; p = 0.038) and ΔLAV(r = 0.48; p = 0.002) with VE/VCO2 slope, what made the authors speculate about the surgical scar between the native and donor atrium. This scar could impair left atrial pump function and induce atrium dilatation to increase its capacity, as a compensatory mechanism.In the figure one of the study, it is evident that some patients decreased LAV while the greatest part of patients increased LAV along the follow-up. Maybe if the authors have made the correlation between the ΔLAV and VE/VCO2 slope separately, according to the increasing or decreasing of the LAV along the follow-up, it could be figured out that patients who had a decreased LAV could have experienced a negative correlation between ΔLAV and VE/VCO2 slope.This way, these data suggest that LAV may play an important role on the exercise capacity understanding in heart transplant recipients.
A cor na obra de Donald Judd: intera??o entre matéria e luz
Carvalho, Paloma;
ARS (S?o Paulo) , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-53202009000100009
Abstract: we try to make visible how the light that touches and propagates over donald judd′s pieces-its internal and external surfaces-was conceived by the artist in the same way as the physical structure of these. in donald judd's work, color turns into a synonym of material surface. it's inherent, substantive, non-applied and without metaphorical meanings. we are following the recent critical tendency that sees a new concept of color in donald judd's work that until some years ago was taken as an orthodox minimalist leader, far away from any appeal to the senses.
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