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Learning from experience: A simple effective protocol to test footwear prescriptions for the Diabetic foot by using the Pedar system  [PDF]
Claudia Giacomozzi, Luigi Uccioli
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.65A008
Abstract:

Adherence of patients to treatment and appropriateness of prescribed footwear are mandatory for successful prevention of Diabetic foot ulceration. In a Public Healthcare Service, footwear approval is under the responsibility of the clinician. In some cases kinetic measurements are taken inside the shoes to support the clinical decision; however, an overall agreement is still missing with respect to a simple, reliable and effective test protocol based on proper threshold values. Authors’ past experiences, specific needs of the Diabetic outpatient service, and suggestions from valuable literature led to an instrumental test protocol based on reference peak pressure (PP) thresholds and gait line (GL) specific for each level of risk. Permission was obtained for one preliminary validation session at the Authors’ outpatient service, during which 11 patients at high/very high risk of ulceration were examined—9 for testing new footwear, 2 for monitoring 12-month-old footwear. The protocol was well accepted by patients and operators, fast and easy to be used. Based on the instrumental, clinical and visual inspection data; 4 new footwear did not pass the test; 5 passed the test but integration or minor changes were requested; the 2 old footwear were found no more effective. As a first positive feedback, after 4 months of wearing the modified prescriptions none of the patients had developed plantar ulcers or signs of tissue damage. Successive data processing proved that in all patients altered PPs and deviated GLs did correlate with alterations of other kinetic parameters. The protocol, which is proved to be sensitive and valuable for the Diabetic foot care, may have a general validity; the delivered specific PP thresholds and reference data, instead, can be reliably used if the test is performed with a calibrated Pedar Insole System and with the wide Insoles in the range UW-YW (EU size 36 - 45).

Simulated Sample Behaviour of a Dissimilarity Index When Sampling from Populations Differing by a Location Parameter Only  [PDF]
Fabio Manca, Claudia Marin
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.515213
Abstract: In this paper the authors study empirically the power of the test based on the index of dissimilarity to compare two samples drawn from two populations differing only in the location parameter. We call such a test as test of homogeneity. In practice the power of such a bidirectional test will be studied referring to the absolute value of the shiftδand to the same probability models considered by Fried and Dehling.
Modelling Turbulent Heat Transfer in a Natural Convection Flow  [PDF]
Claudia Zimmermann, Rodion Groll
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.27073
Abstract:

In this paper a numerical study of a turbulent, natural convection problem is performed with a compressible Large-Eddy simulation. In a natural convection the fluid is accelerated by local density differences and a resulting pressure gradient. Directly at the heated walls the temperature distribution is determinate by increasing temperature gradients. In the centre region convective mass exchange is dominant. Density changes due to temperature differences are considered in the numerical model by a compressible coupled model. The obtained numerical results of this study are compared to an analogue experimental setup. The fluid properties profiles, e.g. temperature and velocity, show an asymmetry which is caused by the non-Boussinesq effects of the fluid. The investigated Rayleigh number of this study lies at Ra = 1.58 × 109.

 

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a Rayleigh-Bénard Convection Affected by Coriolis Force  [PDF]
Claudia Zimmermann, Rodion Groll
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization (JFCMV) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jfcmv.2014.24018
Abstract: In this paper the influence of an impressed Coriolis force field on the configuration of a turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection problem is investigated in an experimental and numerical study. The main purpose of both studies lie on the analysis of a possible stabilising effect of a Coriolis acceleration on the turbulent unsteady structures inside the fluid. The relative Coriolis acceleration which is caused in the atmosphere by the earth rotation is realised in the experimental study by a uniform-rotational movement of the setup in a large-scale centrifuge under hyper-gravity. The same conditions as in the atmosphere in the beginning of a twister or hurricane should be realised in the experiment. The investigated Rayleigh numbers lie between 2.33 × 106 ≤ Ra ≤ 4.32 × 107.
Expression of Cartilage Developmental Genes in Hoxc8- and Hoxd4-Transgenic Mice
Claudia Kruger,Claudia Kappen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008978
Abstract: Hox genes encode transcription factors, which regulate skeletal patterning and chondrocyte differentiation during the development of cartilage, the precursor to mature bone. Overexpression of the homeobox transcription factors Hoxc8 and Hoxd4 causes severe cartilage defects due to delay in cartilage maturation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and fibroblastic growth factors (FGFs) are known to play important roles in skeletal development and endochondral bone formation and remodeling. In order to investigate whether these molecules are aberrantly expressed in Hoxc8- and/or Hoxd4-transgenic cartilage, we performed quantitative RT-PCR on chondrocytes from Hox-transgenic mice. Gene expression levels of Bmp4, Fgf8, Fgf10, Mmp9, Mmp13, Nos3, Timp3, Wnt3a and Wnt5a were altered in Hoxc8-transgenic chondrocytes, and Fgfr3, Ihh, Mmp8, and Wnt3a expression levels were altered in Hoxd4-transgenic chondrocytes, respectively. Notably, Wnt3a expression was elevated in Hoxc8- and reduced in Hoxd4-transgenic cartilage. These results suggest that both transcription factors affect cartilage maturation through different molecular mechanisms, and provide the basis for future studies into the role of these genes and possible interactions in pathogenesis of cartilage defects in Hoxc8- and Hoxd4-transgenic mice.
Organizational and territorial cultures in Chilean journalism
Mellado,Claudia; Lagos,Claudia;
Innovar , 2011,
Abstract: on the basis of survey responses of 570 journalists from 114 newspapers, radio, newswires, television, and internet news organizations, this paper describes the role conceptions, epistemological underpinning, and ethical values of the chilean news media workers, comparing the differences that exist among media types and between the capital and the rest of the country. the findings show territorial cultures of journalism, with differences between the capital and provincial regions, mostly classifiable, because of the country's centralization and sociocultural characteristics. likewise, the results indicate that the chilean journalists' professional culture is not a substantial function of the type of media in which they work, and that the effects that "region" and "media type" factors have on journalism culture are independent from each other.
Nutritional Status of Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis from a Tropical Area of Bolivia, and Implications for Zinc Bioavailability  [PDF]
Claudia E. Lazarte, Claudia Alegre, Ernesto Rojas, Yvonne Granfeldt
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.410A009
Abstract:

Macro and micronutrient deficiencies are a significant problem among people in rural areas in developing countries. Deficiencies may lead to an impaired immune system making the organism vulnerable to infections and diseases. In this paper, the dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, zinc and copper levels in serum, of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are compared with a group of healthy controls and reference values. Results showed no significant differences in most nutrient intake or anthropometrics between patients and controls. However, serum zinc level of patients (80 μg/dl) was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than in controls (85 μg/dl), likely explained by the presence of leishmaniasis. The median serum zinc level in both groups was below the reference values, even though their median zinc intake met the zinc recommendations from WHO. Consequently, besides the presence of leishmaniasis, serum zinc levels may be compromised by inhibitory components in their diet, such as phytates, as it is shown by the molar ratio phytate:zinc (Phy:Zn) that was between 11 and 19, while 15 is the level said to compromise zinc status. There were significant (P < 0.05) negative correlations between serum zinc and Phy:Zn, for patients (r = - 0.413) and controls (r = - 0.410). In conclusion this study shows that patients with CL in Chapare, Bolivia had low serum zinc levels due to the leishmaniasis per se and the decreased zinc bioavailability in their diet. CL infection was not in direct association with the nutritional status indicated by the anthropometric or dietary assessments. However, dietary intake showed 5 essential nutrients below the nutrient recommendation in both groups.

Protein kinase CK2 in the ER stress response  [PDF]
Claudia G?tz, Mathias Montenarh
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2013.33A001
Abstract: The endoplasmic reticulum is the central organelle within a eukaryotic cell where newly synthesized proteins are processed and properly folded. An excess of unfolded or mis-folded proteins induces ER stress signalling pathways. Usually this means a pro-survival strategy for the cell, whereas under extended stress conditions the ER stress signalling pathways have a pro-apoptotic function. CK2 plays a key role in the regulation of the pro-survival as well as the proapoptotic ER stress signalling by directly modulating the activities of members of the ER stress signalling pathways by phosphorylation, regulating the expression of the key factors of the signalling pathways or binding to regulator proteins. The present review will summarize the state of the art in this new emerging field.
Non-Linear Semi-Quantum Hamiltonians and Its Associated Lie Algebras  [PDF]
Claudia M. Sarris, Angelo Plastino
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.520306
Abstract: We show that the non-linear semi-quantum Hamiltonians which may be expressed as\"\"(where\"\"is the set of generators of some Lie algebra and are the classical conjugated canonical variables) always close a partial semi Lie algebra under commutation and\"\", because of this, it is always possible to integrate the mean values of the quantum degrees of freedom of the semi-quantum non-linear system in the fashion:\"\"(where\"\"is the Maximum Entropy Principle density operator) and, so, these kind of Hamiltonians always have associated dynamic invariants which are expressed in terms of the quantum degrees of freedom’s mean values. Those invariants are useful to characterize the kind of dynamics (regular or irregular) the system displays given that they can be fixed by means of the initial conditions imposed on the semi-quantum non-linear system.
“Group Inversion Approach” for Detection of Soil Moisture Temporal-Invariant Locations
Claudia Notarnicola
Remote Sensing , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/rs1041338
Abstract: This paper presents an approach denominated Group Inversion Approach (GIA) which aims at detecting soil moisture temporal invariants, i.e., the stable temporal soil moisture locations, by using mainly remotely sensed data. The soil moisture temporal invariants are those locations where independently of the absolute value changes, the relative spatial distribution of soil moisture remains almost constant. In this procedure, the soil moisture values estimated from different inversion approaches and sensor configurations are compared among themselves and with the ground data. The procedure has been tested in a watershed of around 7,000 km2 with data collected during the SMEX’02 experiment in Iowa (USA). The results indicate that fields with inversion errors lower than five times the soil moisture variability detected with ground measurements represent well the mean watershed soil moisture values. The GIA technique has been also found in good agreement with the classical technique used to detect the stable soil moisture features, based exclusively on ground measurements.
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