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Neuropsychological assessment of executive functions in traumatic brain injury: hot and cold components
Rochele Paz Fonseca,Nicolle Zimmermann,Charles Cotrena,Caroline Cardoso
Psychology & Neuroscience , 2012,
Abstract: This study aims to compare the decision making process between patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and healthy controls. In addition, it also aims to identify dissociations and the frequency of deficits in executive functions (EF) tasks, that mainly assess decision making (DM – hot component) and inhibition (cold component), following TBI. The sample was comprised of 16 post-TBI adults aged between 18 and 68 years and of 16 healthy controls, matched by age and education. They were assessed by means of Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) for DM evaluation, Trail Making Task (TMT) and Hayling Test for inhibitory control assessment. There were no differences between groups regarding the performance on IGT, total and block scores. However, TBI patients preferred the disadvantageous decks, without learning evidence along the task. Seven patients showed a dissociation between deficitary DM on IGT versus accurate inhibition on Hayling Test and on TMT. Conversely, five patients presented a partial dissociation with deficit on IGT and on TMT, with an opposite performance in Hayling Test. Only three cases had deficits in all instruments. In this way, after a TBI a patient can keep a comparable performance on IGT. Moreover, as dissociations among hot and cold executive components were found, when they are associated they can aggravate each other.
Bells test: A cross-cultural study between Brazil and Mexico
Wong, C. E. I.,Cotrena, C.,Mojardín, A. H.,Gauthier, L.
Cuadernos de Neuropsicologia , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate if there are differences between Brazilian and Mexican subjects on the Bells Test (BT), using two versions of the instrument with different levels of difficulty. Also to investigate the possibility of interaction between cultural role and the strategies used, as well as visual field at first bell canceled. Seventy eight neurologically healthy participants were included in two groups: (1) n=39 Brazilian subjects and (2) n=39 Mexican subjects with ages between 19 and 75 years old and 9 years of formal education at least. No group differences were found on performance in both versions of the BT. In both groups, there was a greater tendency to start the task in the left visual field as well as follow a pattern of organized search. According to results, other variables could differentiate performances on this test but not a general cultural as nationality. For further research it is suggested that samples be increased and include participants with low education to understand the visual search process in this populations
O Papel de Variáveis Sócio-Demográficas na Tomada de Decis o: Uma Revis o Sistemática sobre o Iowa Gambling Task
Janaína Castro Nú?ez Carvalho,Caroliine de Oliveira Cardoso,Charles Cotrena,Daniela di Giorgio Schneider Bakos
Avances en Psicología Latinoamericana , 2012,
Abstract: There is a growing interest in the role of socio-demographic variables in cognitive processing in recent years. Some studies in neuropsychology have been showing that socio-cultural factors can beimportant variables in the execution of neuropsychological tasks. However, investigations with healthy samples are still new in the field. This paper aims to present a systematic review of the literature about the role of the socio-demographic variables education, age and gender in the decision making processing assessed by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Medline, Pubmed, Psycinfo and Web of Science databases were searched, from 2000 to 2010, with the following syntax keywords “education OR schooling AND Iowa Gambling Task” OR “somatic marker”; “age” OR “aging” AND “Iowa Gambling Task” OR“somatic marker”; and, “sex” OR “gender” AND “Iowa Gambling Task” OR “somatic marker”. Among the abstracts which fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 9 full- -text papers were analyzed for the age factor, 3 papers for education and 6 for gender. Only a few studies werefound about age, education and gender and their impact on IGT performance. The most studied variable was age. The majority of the studies showed that young adults presented better learning during the task when compared to elderly ones, but there were no differences regarding the total IGT score. When it comes to education fewstudies were found, and as regards gender, the results were contradictory. In this way the need of more studies with healthy samples which can clarify the role of age, schooling and gender in the decision making process evaluated by IGT was highlighted.
Estudo de fidedignidade do instrumento neuropsicológico Iowa Gambling Task
Cardoso, Caroline de Oliveira;Carvalho, Janaína Castro Nú?ez;Cotrena, Charles;Bakos, Daniela di Giorgio Schneider;Kristensen, Christian Haag;Fonseca, Rochele Paz;
Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0047-20852010000400003
Abstract: objective: this study aimed at evaluating reliability evidence of neuropsychological instrument iowa gambling task (igt) by the means of the test-retest method. method: the sample was comprised of 50 healthy subjects, 19-75 years of age, with at least five years of formal education. the assessment was done individually, in two meetings with an interval from 1 to 6 months between test and retest. results: the findings showed a significant moderate positive correlation between test-retest in the overall calculation. in the analysis by segments, a significant moderate positive correlation was found for blocks 4 and 5, whereas there were no significant correlations for blocks 1, 2 and 3. conclusion: these data corroborate recent studies that found moderate correlations between test-retest measures of executive functions, and suggest that the igt can be used to assess decision making over time if specific analyses are taken into account.
O Papel de Variáveis Socio-Demográficas na Tomada de Decis?o: Uma Revis?o Sistemática sobre o Iowa Gambling Task
CASTRO Nú?EZ CARVALHO,JANAíNA; DE OLIVEIRA CARDOSO,CAROLINE; COTRENA,CHARLES; SCHNEIDER BAKOS,DANIELA; HAAG KRISTENSEN,CHRISTIAN; PAZ FONSECA,ROCHELE;
Avances en Psicología Latinoamericana , 2012,
Abstract: there is a growing interest in the role of socio-demographic variables in cognitive processing in recent years. some studies in neuropsychology have been showing that socio-cultural factors can be important variables in the execution of neuropsychological tasks. however, investigations with healthy samples are still new in the field. this paper aims to present a systematic review of the literature about the role of the socio-demographic variables education, age and gender in the decision making processing assessed by the iowa gambling task (igt). medline, pubmed, psycinfo and web of science databases were searched, from 2000 to 2010, with the following syntax keywords "education or schooling and iowa gambling task" or "somatic marker" "age" or "aging" and "iowa gambling task" or "somatic marker"; and, "sex" or "gender" and "iowa gambling task" or "somatic marker". among the abstracts which fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 9 full-text papers were analyzed for the age factor, 3 papers for education and 6 for gender. only a few studies were found about age, education and gender and their impact on igt performance. the most studied variable was age. the majority of the studies showed that young adults presented better learning during the task when compared to elderly ones, but there were no differences regarding the total igt score. when it comes to education few studies were found, and as regards gender, the results were contradictory. in this way the need of more studies with healthy samples which can clarify the role of age, schooling and gender in the decision making process evaluated by igt was highlighted.
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