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The Cinchona Program (1940-1945): science and imperialism in the exploitation of a medicinal plant
Cuvi,Nicolás;
Dynamis , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S0211-95362011000100009
Abstract: during world war ii, the united states implemented programs to exploit hundreds of raw materials in latin america, many of them botanical. this required the participation of the country's scientific community and marked the beginning of intervention in latin american countries characterized by the active participation of the united states in negotiations (and not only by private firms supported by the united states). many federal institutions and companies were created, others were adapted, and universities, research centers and pharmaceutical companies were contracted. the programs undertaken by this coalition of institutions served to build and consolidate the dependence of latin american countries on united states technology, to focus their economies on the extraction and development of resources that the united states could not obtain at home (known as "complementary") and to impede the development of competition. latin american republics had been historically dependant on raw material exports (minerals and plants). but during world war ii their dependence on us loans, markets, science and technology reached record levels. one example of this can be appreciated through a careful examination of the cinchona program, implemented in the 1940s by us agencies in latin america. this program for the extraction of a single medicinal plant, apart from representing a new model of scientific imperialism (subsequently renamed "scientific cooperation") was the most intensive and extensive scientific exploration of a single medicinal plant in the history of mankind.
DEJEN QUE EL DIABLO HAGA LO DEMáS: LA PROMOCIóN DE PRODUCTOS COMPLEMENTARIOS EN AMéRICA LATINA DURANTE LA DéCADA DE 1940
Cuvi,Nicolás;
Historia Crítica , 2011,
Abstract: during the 1940s, the united states undertook a series of ambitious programs to exploit raw materials -mineral, vegetable, and animal- in latin america. these programs, which required the united states to use all its scientific, economic, and diplomatic weight, consolidated the commodity-based imperialism that it has exercised in the region since the middle of the twentieth century. this article focuses on the mechanisms that it employed to promote the exploitation of vegetable resources and reflects on the impacts that this form of intervention in nature has had on the environment and the agricultural development of the region.
“Dejen que el diablo haga lo demás”: la promoción de productos complementarios en América Latina durante la década de 1940
Nicolás Cuvi
Historia Crítica , 2011,
Abstract: During the 1940s, the United States undertook a series of ambitious programs to exploit raw materials —mineral, vegetable, and animal— in Latin America. These programs, which required the United States to use all its scientific, economic, and diplomatic weight, consolidated the commodity-based imperialism that it has exercised in the region since the middle of the twentieth century. This article focuses on the mechanisms that it employed to promote the exploitation of vegetable resources and reflects on the impacts that this form of intervention in nature has had on the environment and the agricultural development of the region.
Publicaciones feministas en el Ecuador: Caracola y El ágora de las mujeres
Cuvi-Sánchez, Maria;
Revista Estudos Feministas , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-026X2004000300010
Abstract: this essay is about caracola y el ágora de las mujeres, two feminist's publications that circulate in ecuador. the first is a published paper journal that comes out every three months, it first appeared in march 2001; the second was as on-line webzine that appeared between 2002 and 2003. this essay talks about the objectives of both these publications, it describes their reception and the challenges they fac.e the author's intentions are twofold: how to make feminist discourses heard in ecuador and how to erode the androcentric line of thought that dominates the sciences, literature and art in this country.
El espa ol en los intercambios de ciencia y tecnología durante el siglo XX
Nicolás Cuvi,Carlos Acosta
Panace@ : Revista de Medicina, Lenguaje y Traducción , 2005,
Abstract: En un amplio estudio sobre los intercambios de ciencia y tecnología entre Espa a e Hispanoamérica durante el siglo XX, nos hemos cuestionado sobre el peso relativo del lenguaje común en la intensidad de esta comunicación. Encontramos que durante el siglo XX, diversas voces de científicos y lingüistas han realizado esfuerzos —retóricos en ocasiones, prácticos en otras— por fortalecer el conocimiento y el uso de las voces en espa ol de la ciencia y la tecnología. Testimonio de ello son los intentos de compilar diccionarios y vocabularios que se suceden a lo largo de la centuria. Pero aun considerando tal interés por normalizar las voces de la ciencia y la tecnología en espa ol —un campo que, lejos de agotarse, demanda atención cada día—, resulta difícil concluir si durante el siglo XX, además de facilitar las comunicaciones (lo que ya es importante), el idioma común fue o no determinante para los intercambios de ciencia y tecnología entre Hispanoamérica y Espa a. -------------------------------------------- The Spanish language in scientific and technological exchanges during the twentieth century. In an extensive study on the scientific and technological exchanges that took place between Spain and Spanish America during the twentieth century, we looked at the relative influence of everyday language on the intensity of that communication. In doing so we discovered that in the twentieth century efforts were made by scientists and linguists alike, both on a rhetorical and practical level, to promote the knowledge and use of Spanish scientific and technical terms, as witnessed by numerous attempts at compiling dictionaries and glossaries throughout the century. But even in the face of such efforts to standardize scientific and technological vocabulary in Spanish —an enterprise that, far from being obsolete, demands increasing attention— it is difficult to ascertain whether everyday language, aside from having made communication easier (an important contribution in and of itself), played a decisive role in the scientific and technological exchanges between Spanish America and Spain during the twentieth century, or whether it failed to do so.
Contenido de compuestos antioxidantes en tres estados de maduración de tomate de árbol (Solanum betaceum Cav.) cultivado a diferentes alturas (m.s.n.m.) Antioxidant compounds content in red-purple tree tomato grown at different altitudes (m.a.s.l.)
Lorena Cuesta,María José Andrade Cuvi,Carlota Moreno Guerrero,Analía Concellón
Enfoque UTE , 2013,
Abstract: (Recibido: 2013/03/07 - Aceptado: 2013/06/17) El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar el contenido de compuestos antioxidantes entomate de árbol morado cultivado a diferentes alturas (m.s.n.m.). Se emplearon frutosprovenientes de Pelileo (2660 m.s.n.m.) y Chiquicha (2440 m.s.n.m.) en tres estados demaduración (inmaduros, maduros y sobremaduros). Se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos (colorsuperficial e interno, pH, acidez total titulable -ATT- y sólidos solubles totales -SST-) ybioquímicos por espectrofotometría UV-Vis (fenoles totales -FT-, antocianinas totales -AT-,carotenos totales -CT-, ácido L-ascórbico -AA- y capacidad antioxidante -CA-) en el endocarpioy mesocarpio de los frutos. En el color se obtuvieron mayores valores de L* (epicarpio) y h*(epicarpio y mesocarpio) en frutos inmaduros, maduros y sobremaduros de Chiquicha; mientrasque el valor de C* del mesocarpio y endocarpio fue mayor en aquellos de Pelileo. Lasdiferencias de color fueron evidentes con la maduración, pero no se encontró una relacióndirecta entre la altura de cultivo y los cambios en los parámetros de color analizados. Se obtuvouna diferencia significativamente mayor en el pH de tomates (inmaduros y maduros) deChiquicha. Asimismo, estos frutos presentaron mayor ATT (maduros y sobremaduros) y SST(sobremaduros) que los de Pelileo. El mesocarpio presentó mayor contenido de FT y CT en losfrutos (tres estados de maduración) de Chiquicha, mientras que mayor concentración de estoscompuestos presentó el endocarpio de frutos sobremaduros de Pelileo. El contenido de AT yAA fue mayor en frutos maduros de Chiquicha. En general, los frutos de Chiquicha mostraronmayor concentración de compuestos antioxidantes; posiblemente porque dicha plantación,constituida por al menos dos genotipos, se sitúa en una zona monta osa con buenascaracterísticas para el cultivo de este frutal. (Received: 2013/03/07 - Accepted: 2013/06/17) The aim of this research was to study the antioxidant compounds content in Red-purple treetomato grown at different altitudes (m.a.s.l.). Fruits from Pelileo (2660 m.a.s.l.) and Chiquicha(2440 m.a.s.l.) in three maturity stages (unripe, ripe and overripe) were used. Physicochemical(surface and internal color, pH, titratable total acidity -TTA- and total soluble solids -SST-) andbiochemical analyses using UV-Vis spectrophotometry (total phenol -TF-, total anthocyanins -TA-, total carotenes -CT-, L-ascorbic acid -AA- and antioxidant capacity -AC-) in the mesocarpand endocarp of fruits were performed. In the color, higher values of L* (epicarp) and h*(epicarp and mesocarp) i
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