Abstract:
The electromagnetic interaction of the hydrogen atom is used as an experimental device and the data prove that bound fields and radiation fields are different physical objects. A further analysis proves that there is no direct interaction between radiation fields and there is no self-interaction of fields of an elementary pointlike charge. Therefore, bound fields and radiation fields should be treated differently and radiation fields emitted from two different sources should be treated separately. The fields term of the electromagnetic Lagrangian density L_{em}=-F^{uv }F_{uv}/16π; does not abide by these properties of electromagnetic fields, because F^{uv }is the sum of all kinds of fields. This is the underlying reason for the infinities of quantum electrodynamics and for the erroneous energy-momentum tensor which is obtained from an analysis of L_{em}.

The paper discusses two cases showing crucial effects of
error correction. It proves that contrary to the common belief, the electronic
state of atoms having more than one electron has a multiconfiguration structure
and that the central field approximation provides an inadequate description of
the wave function. Fundamental isospin properties prove that baryonic quarks
(like those of the ) can be
regarded as ordinary Dirac particles. Theoretical consequences of these issues
are discussed.

Problems with the electroweak theory
indicate the need for a consistent weak interactions theory. The analysis presented in this work is
restricted to the relatively simple case of elastic scattering of a neutrino on
a Dirac particle. The theory presented
herein assumes that the neutrino is a massive particle. Furthermore, the dimension [L^{2}] of the Fermi constant G_{F }as well as its
universal property are used as elements of the theory. On this basis, it is assumed that weak interactions are a dipole-dipole
interaction mediated by a weak field. An interaction term that represents weak interactions is added to the Dirac Lagrangian
density. The identity is used in an analysis
which proves that the interaction violates parity because it consists of
two terms-a vector and an
axial vector. This outcome is in accordance with the experimentally confirmed V-A property of weak interactions

This work discusses properties of a recently published weak interactions theory which is derived from a Lagrangian density L_{w}. This theory depends on the experimentally confirmed massive neutrino. The interaction which is carried by an appropriate mediating field is consistent with the Fermi coupling constant of weak interactions G_{F}. Its results prove the existence of a vector term V and an axial vector term A in a description of weak interactions processes and of their associated parity nonconservation. An analysis of the weak interactions Lagrangian density L_{w} shows similarity and differences between the theoretical structure of electrodynamics and that of weak interactions.

This work distinguishes
between classical electrodynamics where Maxwell equations and the Lorentz force
are used as the theory’s
cornerstone (MLE) and electrodynamic theories that are derived from the
variational principle (VE). The paper explains the significance of this
distinction. Mathematical elements of gauge transformations are examined within
the realm of these theories. The analysis proves that MLE is a gauge invariant
theory whereas errors arise from the introduction of gauge transformations into
VE. The paper explains why MLE evades the contradictions of VE.

Abstract:
The paper shows that the variational principle serves as an element of the mathematical structure of a quantum theory. The experimentally confirmed properties of the corpuscular-wave duality of a quantum particle are elements of the analysis. A Lagrangian density that yields the equations of motion of a given quantum theory of a massive particle is analyzed. It is proved that if this Lagrangian density is a Lorentz scalar whose dimension is ？then the associated action consistently defines the required phase of the quantum particle. The dimension of this Lagrangian density proves that also the quantum function ？has dimension. This result provides new criteria for the acceptability of quantum theories. An examination of the first order Dirac equation demonstrates that it satisfies the new criteria whereas the second order Klein-Gordon equation fails to do that.

The paper discusses the existence of errors in the
Standard Model. An adequate amount of examples and references support the
arguments. The errors belong to the electromagnetic, strong and weak
interactions sectors of the Standard Model. It turns out that this state of
affairs is far from being well-known and too many people unjustifiably glorify
the Standard Model as an excellent theory. It is explained why a reexamination
of the Standard Model can only improve the status of physics.

This work discusses the
problem of the apparently non-symmetric form of the electromagnetic fields’ energy-momentum tensor,
which is obtained from the variational principle. The analysis treats differently radiation fields and bound fields. This distinction has a solid experimental
basis where the hydrogen atom proves that radiation fields and bound fields
have a different spin and a different parity. A direct calculation proves that
in the case of radiation fields, the variational principle yields the well
known symmetric energy momentum tensor and the problem does not exist.

The
purpose of the paper is to use fundamental theoretical and experimental
elements of electrodynamics for deriving properties of radiation fields and of
bound fields. A wide variety of examples prove that radiation fields and bound
fields do not represent the same physical object. This conclusion is new. Some
examples belong to the classical domain and others belong to the quantum
domain. Consequences of this outcome affect several physical issues. In
particular, these fields should be treated separately. For this reason, changes
must be introduced to the present form of the fields’ Lagrangian density of
quantum electrodynamics, where the fields tensor F^{uv }is a sum of
bound and radiation fields. Since the Lagrangian density is a key element of
the theory, its revision may entail changes of other specific issues. The
recent failure of quantum electrodynamics to explain the electron and the muon
data of the proton charge radius supports this conclusion.

This work analyzes quantum fields that describe
particles and quantum fields that mediate interaction between particles.
Criteria for the acceptability of a quantum theory are explained and used. The
main result states that no genuine particle mediates interaction between other
particles. It is proved that Maxwellian radiation fields, namely photons,
interact with electric charges but no genuine photon is involved in a bound
state of atomic electrons or in the case where an electronic beam is scattered
by an electrically charged target. The term virtual photons, which describes interaction
mediating electromagnetic fields, indicates that the current literature
implicitly agrees with this conclusion. Analogous results are obtained for the
strong nuclear force, for the strong interactions and for the weak
interactions.