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The effects of favouring lower alcohol content beverages: Four examples from Finland
Esa sterberg
Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10199-012-0004-0
Abstract: AIMS-This paper studies the possibility of substituting the consumption of one alcoholic beverage category for another by changing alcohol control measures. It examines four Finnish examples: the waiving in 1952 of the requirement to show a special identity card issued by the alcohol monopoly Alko for buying fortified wines; again binding the sales of fortified wines to Alko's identity card in 1958; a 1960s alcohol price policy favouring wines and beer over vodka; and the change in alcohol legislation in 1968, which allowed selling medium beer in grocery stores but left the off-premise sales of all stronger alcoholic beverages to Alko's liquor stores. DATA-Data on recorded consumption of alcoholic beverages in terms of 100 per cent alcohol per capita according to beverage categories will be used together with the numbers of arrests for drunkenness according to beverage categories as well as different data sources on changes in alcohol control measures. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS-The four examples from Finland show that strong alcoholic beverages can be substituted for lighter drinks, but this seems to work especially when the lighter beverages can be used for the same purposes as the stronger ones. It is much more difficult to persuade consumers to substitute strong alcoholic beverages for light ones by changing relative alcohol availability or by adjusting prices, if the consumers also have to change their drinking habits by, for instance, substituting binging with vodka for drinking light wines with meals. The Finnish examples also make it clear that changing from one beverage category to another does not automatically result in changing the way to use alcoholic beverages or the drinking habits themselves.
The SU(N) Wilson Loop Average in 2 Dimensions
Esa Karjalainen
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1016/0550-3213(94)90615-7
Abstract: We solve explicitly a closed, linear loop equation for the SU(2) Wilson loop average on a two-dimensional plane and generalize the solution to the case of the SU(N) Wilson loop average with an arbitrary closed contour. Furthermore, the flat space solution is generalized to any two-dimensional manifold for the SU(2) Wilson loop average and to any two-dimensional manifold of genus 0 for the SU(N) Wilson loop average.
What Did Fisher Mean by An Estimate?
Esa Uusipaikka
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: Fisher's Method of Maximum Likelihood is shown to be a procedure for the construction of likelihood intervals or regions, instead of a procedure of point estimation. Based on Fisher's articles and books it is justified that by estimation Fisher meant the construction of likelihood intervals or regions from appropriate likelihood function and that an estimate is a statistic, that is, a function from a sample space to a parameter space such that the likelihood function obtained from the sampling distribution of the statistic at the observed value of the statistic is used to construct likelihood intervals or regions. Thus Problem of Estimation is how to choose the 'best' estimate. Fisher's solution for the problem of estimation is Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE). Fisher's Theory of Statistical Estimation is a chain of ideas used to justify MLE as the solution of the problem of estimation. The construction of confidence intervals by the delta method from the asymptotic normal distribution of MLE is based on Fisher's ideas, but is against his 'logic of statistical inference'. Instead the construction of confidence intervals from the profile likelihood function of a given interest function of the parameter vector is considered as a solution more in line with Fisher's 'ideology'. A new method of calculation of profile likelihood-based confidence intervals for general smooth interest functions in general statistical models is considered.
Nonparametric Simultaneous Sparse Recovery: an Application to Source Localization
Esa Ollila
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We consider multichannel sparse recovery problem where the objective is to find good recovery of jointly sparse unknown signal vectors from the given multiple measurement vectors which are different linear combinations of the same known elementary vectors. Many popular greedy or convex algorithms perform poorly under non-Gaussian heavy-tailed noise conditions or in the face of outliers. In this paper, we propose the usage of mixed $\ell_{p,q}$ norms on data fidelity (residual matrix) term and the conventional $\ell_{0,2}$-norm constraint on the signal matrix to promote row-sparsity. We devise a greedy pursuit algorithm based on simultaneous normalized iterative hard thresholding (SNIHT) algorithm. Simulation studies highlight the effectiveness of the proposed approaches to cope with different noise environments (i.i.d., row i.i.d, etc) and outliers. Usefulness of the methods are illustrated in source localization application with sensor arrays.
Multichannel sparse recovery of complex-valued signals using Huber's criterion
Esa Ollila
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we generalize Huber's criterion to multichannel sparse recovery problem of complex-valued measurements where the objective is to find good recovery of jointly sparse unknown signal vectors from the given multiple measurement vectors which are different linear combinations of the same known elementary vectors. This requires careful characterization of robust complex-valued loss functions as well as Huber's criterion function for the multivariate sparse regression problem. We devise a greedy algorithm based on simultaneous normalized iterative hard thresholding (SNIHT) algorithm. Unlike the conventional SNIHT method, our algorithm, referred to as HUB-SNIHT, is robust under heavy-tailed non-Gaussian noise conditions, yet has a negligible performance loss compared to SNIHT under Gaussian noise. Usefulness of the method is illustrated in source localization application with sensor arrays.
The Effect of Laser Sintering Process Parameters on Cu Nanoparticle Ink in Room Conditions  [PDF]
Eerik Halonen, Esa Heinonen, Matti M?ntysalo
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.34A007
Abstract:

Copper is an interesting material for printed electronics inks because, for example, of its good conductivity and lower raw material price compared to silver. However, post-processing Cu inks is challenging because of non-conductive copper oxide. In this work, inkjet-printed Cu nanoparticle structures were sintered on a polyimide substrate with a continuous-wave 808-nm diode laser. Laser sintering was tested by varying the sintering parameters (optical power and scanning velocity), and the electrical resistance of the samples was measured. A minimum sheet resistance of approx.90 mΩ/□ was obtained. All tests were run in room conditions. Sintered structures were then analyzed from SEM images. Results showed that laser sintering produces good repeatability, that a scanning velocity increment positively affects the process window, and that multiple sintering cycles do not increase conductivity.

Quality of object relations modifies the effectiveness of short- and long-term psychotherapy on self-concept  [PDF]
Olavi Lindfors, Paul Knekt, Esa Virtala
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.34036
Abstract:

The quality of object relations affects interpersonal behaviour, but it is not known whether it modifies effectiveness on personality functioning in psychotherapies of different mode and length. In this study we estimated the modifying effect of the quality of object relations on the effect of solution-focused therapy (SFT) and shortand long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP and LPP) on self-concept. A total of 326 patients were assessed at baseline with the Quality of Object Relations Scale (QORS) and 4 times during a 3-year follow-up with the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior self-concept questionnaire, comprising altogether 10 scores on different aspects of self-concept pathology. The effectiveness of SFT, but not SPP, was significantly poorer in several domains (5/10) of self-concept for patients with low QORS, i.e. those with less mature relational patterns, than for patients with high QORS, while the reversal occurred in some (3/10) self-concept domains in LPP. The results suggest that the quality of object relations has significance for treatment selection in therapies with different mode and length.

Improving the Use of Robotic Welding of Aluminum Boats through Modularization  [PDF]
Paul Kah, Esa Hiltunen, Jukka Martikainen
Engineering (ENG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2014.61007
Abstract:

The level of automation in the manufacture of recreational aluminum boats is very low. Robotized welding is rarely utilized, although it is commonly considered as the most effective way to reduce costs and increase competitiveness. A reason for the under-exploitation of robotics can be found in the construction of aluminum boats; boat models and their detailed structures are almost without exception individual pieces. A new stiffener structure for an aluminum recreational boat hull is developed in this work. Construction of the stiffener as a module allows exploitation of the advantages of modularization. The number of different parts is reduced and the structure simplified improves the applicability of robotic welding and provides benefits accruing from mass production. The same module can be used in several boat models. The modularity also makes it possible to use the same advanced robot welding fixture for a variety of boat models.

Costs and Benefits of a Shared Digital Long-Term Preservation System
Esa-Pekka Keskitalo
Liber Quarterly : The Journal of European Research Libraries , 2011,
Abstract: This paper describes the cost-benefit analysis of digital long-term preservation (LTP) that was carried out in the context of the Finnish National Digital Library Project (NDL) in 2010. The analysis was based on the assumption that as many as 200 archives, libraries, and museums will share an LTP system. The term ‘system’ shall be understood as encompassing not only information technology, but also human resources, organizational structures, policies and funding mechanisms. The cost analysis shows that an LTP system will incur, over the first 12 years, cumulative costs of €42 million, i.e. an average of €3.5 million per annum. Human resources and investments in information technology are the major cost factors. After the initial stages, the analysis predicts annual costs of circa €4 million. The analysis compared scenarios with and without a shared LTP system. The results indicate that a shared system will have remarkable benefits. At the development and implementation stages, a shared system shows an advantage of €30 million against the alternative scenario consisting of five independent LTP solutions. During the later stages, the advantage is estimated at €10 million per annum. The cumulative cost benefit over the first 12 years would amount to circa €100 million.
El álgebra como lenguaje alternativo y de cambio en las concepciones y prácticas de los profesores de matemáticas
Tenoch Esaú Cedillo ávalos
Perfiles educativos , 2003,
Abstract: Esta investigación se efectuó durante tres a os con una población de 800 profesores; el autor estudió los cambios en las concepciones y prácticas de maestros de secundaria cuando ejercen su docencia en el contexto de la aplicación de un enfoque didáctico no convencional para la ense anza del álgebra. En ese enfoque didáctico se concibe el álgebra como un lenguaje y, como consecuencia de esto, se plantea su ense anza sobre principios similares a los que se emplean en el aprendizaje de la lengua materna. Sus resultados sugieren que esta manera de abordar la ense anza promueve cambios importantes en sus concepciones sobre la ense anza, el aprendizaje y las matemáticas escolares. En este artículo se discute el modelo didáctico que se empleó, se describen los aspectos teórico-metodológicos del proyecto y se presentan sus resultados en el marco de la literatura de investigación.
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