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Novel Therapeutic/Integrative Approaches for Celiac Disease and Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Alessio Fasano
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/959061
Abstract: Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Gluten is a protein component in wheat and other cereals like rye and barley. At present, the only available treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. Recent advances have increased our understanding of the molecular basis for this disorder. Last decade has seen new scientific developments in this disease and led to the formulation of new concepts of pathophysiology that offer possible targets for new treatments or interventions integrative to the gluten-free diet.
Novel Therapeutic/Integrative Approaches for Celiac Disease and Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Alessio Fasano
Journal of Immunology Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/959061
Abstract: Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Gluten is a protein component in wheat and other cereals like rye and barley. At present, the only available treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. Recent advances have increased our understanding of the molecular basis for this disorder. Last decade has seen new scientific developments in this disease and led to the formulation of new concepts of pathophysiology that offer possible targets for new treatments or interventions integrative to the gluten-free diet. 1. Introduction Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated chronic enteropathy with a wide range of presenting manifestations of variable severity. It is triggered by the ingestion of gliadin fraction of wheat gluten and similar alcohol-soluble proteins (prolamins) of barley and rye in genetically susceptible subjects with subsequent immune reaction leading to small bowel inflammation and normalization of the villous architecture in response to a gluten-free diet (GFD). CD not only affects the gut, but it is a systemic disease that may cause injury to the skin (dermatitis herpetiformis, the topic of this special issue), liver, joints, brain, heart, and other organs. It is a complex genetic disorder, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) status appears to be the strongest genetic determinant of risk for celiac autoimmunity. There is a propensity for individuals with CD to carry specific HLA class II alleles, which has been estimated to account for up to 40% of the genetic load [1]. In affected individuals, 95% have either DQ2 (HLA-DQA1*05-DQB1*02) or DQ8 (HLADQA1*03-DQB1*0302), in comparison with the general population in which 39.5% have either DQ2 or DQ8 [2]. It is the interplay between genes (both HLA and non-HLA associated) and environment (i.e., gluten) that leads to the intestinal damage typical of the disease [3]. Under physiological circumstances, this interplay is prevented by competent intercellular tight junctions (TJs), structures that limit the passage of macromolecules (including gluten) across the intestinal epithelial barrier. Recent evidence suggests that the gluten-induced upregulation of zonulin, a recently described intestinal peptide involved in TJ regulation, is responsible, at least in part, for the aberrant increase in gut permeability characteristic of the early phase of CD [4] and the subsequent abnormal passage of gluten into the lamina propria. Here, the protein is deamidated by tissue transglutaminase and is then recognized by HLA-DQ2/DQ8
A Framework of Conjugate Direction Methods for Symmetric Linear Systems in Optimization
Giovanni Fasano
Mathematics , 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s10957-014-0600-0
Abstract: In this paper we introduce a parameter dependent class of Krylov-based methods, namely CD, for the solution of symmetric linear systems. We give evidence that in our proposal we generate sequences of conjugate directions, extending some properties of the standard Conjugate Gradient (CG) method, in order to preserve the conjugacy. For specific values of the parameters in our framework we obtain schemes equivalent to both the CG and the scaled-CG. We also prove the finite convergence of the algorithms in CD, and we provide some error analysis. Finally, preconditioning is introduced for CD, and we show that standard error bounds for the preconditioned CG also hold for the preconditioned CD.
Inspiratory muscle training in difficult to wean patients: work it harder, make it better, do it faster, makes us stronger
Stefano Nava, Luca Fasano
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10125
Abstract: Martin and colleagues [1] recently published in Critical Care an article entitled 'Inspiratory muscle strength training improves the outcome in failure to wean patients: a randomized trial'. Failure-to-wean patients comprise a subset of patients receiving mechanical ventilation who have weaning difficulties such that the duration of ventilation may be abnormally prolonged (>15 days). In the US, about 300,000 patients every year receive prolonged life support in the ICU, and this number is likely to double within a decade, with associated costs of more than US$ 50 billion [2]. Weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation is a complex, time-consuming process that does not involve just selecting the best ventilation method for a particular patient.Due to the nature of critical illness and the modalities used to manage it, prolonged bed rest, with well-known adverse physiological effects, seems to be the rule in the ICU. Rehabilitation has the potential to restore lost function, but with few exceptions is traditionally not started until after ICU discharge since critically ill patients are often viewed as 'too sick' to tolerate a retraining program. Several reports have shown that the diaphragm and the other respiratory muscles are weak in these patients; this occurs for many reasons, including the effects of controlled mechanical ventilation (that is, disuse atrophy), electrolyte depletion, use of drugs affecting inotropic properties (that is, steroids and myorelaxants), and the presence of co-morbidities (for example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure and sepsis) [3]. Despite the fact that respiratory muscle fatigue has not been demonstrated so far, even in patients sufficiently ill to require mechanical ventilation [4], the loss of force/generating capacity (that is, the reduction in maximal inspiratory pressure) seems to be a major determinant of weaning failure, although it is not a specific predictor of inability to sustain to
Otter (Lutra lutra) presence in Lattari mountains (Campania Region, Southern Italy)
Roberto Fasano,Guglielmo Maglio
Hystrix : the Italian Journal of Mammalogy , 1995, DOI: 10.4404/hystrix-7.1-2-4076
Abstract: A new area of presence of the otter (Lutra lutra) was found in Campania region (Southern Italy). It included the "Valle delle Ferriere" and "Vècite" canyons close to Amalfi town (Salerno province). A total of 24 sprainting sites was recorded. Riassunto Presenza della lontra (Lutra lutra) nei monti Lattari (Campania) - Si descrive un'area di presenza della lontra (Lutra lutra) in Campania mai segnalata prima, comprendente la "Valle delle Ferriere" attraversata dal torrente Ceraso e la valle denominata "Vècite" (Amalfi, Provincia di Salerno). In totale sono stati trovati 24 siti di marcamento.
Salvatore, Ricardo D.: Wandering Paysanos. State order and subaltern experience in Buenos Aires during the Rosas era, Durham y Londres, Duke University Press, 2003, 523 págs
Juan Pablo Fasano
Bolet?-n del Instituto de Historia Argentina y Americana Dr. Emilio Ravignani , 2005,
Abstract:
Analysis of Spaceborne Tandem Configurations for Complementing COSMO with SAR Interferometry
A. Moccia,G. Fasano
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2005, DOI: 10.1155/asp.2005.3304
Abstract: This paper analyses the possibility of using a fifth passive satellite for endowing the Italian COSMO-SkyMed constellation with cross- and along-track SAR interferometric capabilities, by using simultaneously flying and operating antennas. Fundamentals of developed models are described and potential space configurations are investigated, by considering both formations operating on the same orbital plane and on separated planes. The study is mainly aimed at describing achievable baselines and their time histories along the selected orbits. The effects of tuning orbital parameters, such as eccentricity or ascending node phasing, are pointed out, and simulation results show the most favorable tandem configurations in terms of achieved baseline components, percentage of the orbit adequate for interferometry, and covered latitude intervals.
Ras–ERK Signaling in Behavior: Old Questions and New Perspectives
Stefania Fasano,Riccardo Brambilla
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00079
Abstract: The role of Ras–ERK signaling in behavioral plasticity is well established. Inhibition studies using the blood–brain barrier permeable drug SL327 have conclusively demonstrated that this neuronal cell signaling cascade is a crucial component of the synaptic machinery implicated in the formation of various forms of long-term memory, from spatial learning to fear and operant conditioning. However, abnormal Ras–ERK signaling has also been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including mental retardation syndromes (“RASopathies”), drug addiction, and L-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID). The work recently done on these brain disorders has pointed to previously underappreciated roles of Ras–ERK in specific subsets of neurons, like GABAergic interneurons of the hippocampus or the cortex, as well as in the medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Here we will highlight the open questions related to Ras–ERK signaling in these behavioral manifestations and propose crucial experiments for the future.
Morphological classification of high redshift galaxies
E. Pignatelli,G. Fasano
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: We present GASPHOT, a tool for automated surface photometry and morphological classification of galaxies in deep and wide fields. The requirements for any such tool are reviewed, and its use for the classification of high-z galaxies is presented. In the case if HDF-like images, for galaxies having a magnitude ranging from 24 to 27.5, the uncertainties on the photometric parameters derived from GASPHOT are respectively 0.02-0.1 on magnitude, 0.03 on the logarithm of the scale length, 0.02-0.5 on the Sersic index n used to classify the surface brightness profile of the galaxies. A comparison with the results achieved using Sextractor is presented.
Temor y compasión en los Poemas Homéricos
Zecchin de Fasano,Graciela Cristina;
Synthesis (La Plata) , 2002,
Abstract: from aristotle′s poetics, fear and compassion have been understood as emotions or tragic "pleasures". however, the homeric poems attest the presence of both emotions, and included a special definition of fear, not only as concepts that limits the heroic action or carries a conduct code also as expression of the vulnerability shared among the characters and the potential audience. the present article analizes the epic definition about such concepts and her importance in order to interpret the iliad and the odyssey.
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